339 Greenwald, Peter, 2002. Cancer chemoprevention. BMJ , 324, 714–718.
340 Clarke, M.F. and Becker, M.W., 2006. Stem cells: the real culprits in cancer? Scientific American , July 2006, 53–59.
341 Study reveals how growth factors affect human stem cells. www.hhmi.org/news/melton.hmtl
342 Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, V.W., 1990. Harper's Biochemistry . Appleton and Lange Norwalk, CT, p. 653.
343 Woolf, Neville, 1998. Pathology, Basic and Systemic . W.B. Saunders Publishing Co., Chapter 28, p. 274, Figure 28.
345 Ludwig, T., Fisher, P., Ganesan, S. and Efstratiadis, 2001. Tumorigenesis in mice carrying a truncating BRCA1 mutation. Genes and Development , Vol. 15 (10), 1188–1193.
346 Xu, X., Wagner, K.U., Larson, D., Weaver, Z., Li, C., Ried, T., Hennighausen, L., Wynshaw-Boris, A. and Deng, C.X. 1999. Conditional mutation of BRCA1 in mammary epithelial cells results in blunted ductal morphogenesis and tumour formation. Nature Genetics , Vol. 22 (1), 37–43.
347 Paull, T.T, Cortez, D., Bowers, B., Elledge, S.J. and Gellert, M., 2001. Direct DNA binding by BRCA1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA , Vol. 98 (11), 6086–6091.
348 Jensen, R.A., Thompson, M.E., Jetton, T.L., Szabo, C.I., van der Meer, R., Helou, B., Tronick, S., King, M.C., Page, D.L. and Holt, J.T., 1996. BRCA1 is secreted and exhibits properties of a granin. Nature Genetics , 12, 303–308; www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/cancer/research/roster/jensen.html
349 Struewing, J.P., Abeliovich, D., Peretz, T., Avishai, N., Kaback, M.M., Collins, F.S. and Brody, L.C., 1995. The carrier frequency of the BRCA1 185delAG mutation is approximately 1 percent in Ashkenazi-Jewish individuals. Nature Genetics , 11, 198–200; http://rex.nci.nih.gov/massmedia/back-grounders/ashkenazi.html
350 Roa, B.B., Boyd, A.A., Volcik, K. and Richards, C.S., 1996. Ashkenazi Jewish population frequencies for common mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nature Genetics , 14, 185–187; Oddoux, C., Struewing, J.P., Clayton, C.M., Neuhausen, S., Vrody, L.C., Kaback, M., Haas, B., Norton, L., Borgen, P. Jhanwar, S., Golgar, D., Ostrer, H. and Offit, K., 1996. The carrier frequency of the BRCA2 6174delT mutation among Ashkenazi Jewish individuals is approximately 1 %. Nature Genetics , 14, 188–190; http://rex.nci.nih.gov/massmedia/backgrounders/ashkenazi.html
352 Hursting, S.D., Slaga,T.J., Fischer, S.M., DiGiovanni, J. and Phtans, J. M., 1999. Mechanism-based cancer prevention approaches: targets, examples, and the use of transgenic mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute , 35, 2031–2038.
353 Cheeseman, K.H. and Slater, T.F., 1993. Free Radicals in Medicine . Churchill Livingston.
354 Cheeseman, K.H. and Slater, T.F., 1993. Free Radicals in Medicine . Churchill Livingston.
355 Stewart, H.J., 1989. Clinical experience in the use of antioestrogen tamoxifen in the treatment of breast cancer. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh , 95B, 231–237.
356 Miller, W. R., 1997. Aromatase inhibitors and breast cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews , 23, 113–131.
357 Dao, T.L., Sinha, D.K., Nemato, T. and Patel, J., 1982. Effects of estrogens and progesterone on cellular replication of human breast tumours. Cancer Research , 42, 359–362.
358 Conte, P.P., Fraschini, G. and Dewinko, B., 1985. Estrogen induced expansion of the growth fraction in receptor negative human breast cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry , 23, 1169–1172.
359 Miller, W.R. and Langdon, S.P., 1997. Hormonal, growth factor and cytokine control of breast cancer. In: Biology of Female Cancers , pp. 43–60. Langdon, S,P., Miller, W.R. and Berchuck, A. (editors). New York: CRC Press.
360 Miller, W.R., 1991. Oestrogens and breast cancer: biological considerations, British Medical Bulletin , 47, 470–483.
361 Yu, H. and Rohan, T., 2002. Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression. J. Natl Cancer Inst , 92, 1472–1489.
362 Rose, Steven, with Mileusnic, Radmila, 1999. The Chemistry of Life . Fourth (revised) edition. Penguin Books.
363 Voet, Donald and Voet, Judith, 1995. Biochemistry . Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
364 Jiang, Wen G., Matsumoto, Kunio and Nakamura, Toshikazu (editors), 2001, Growth Factors and their Receptors in Cancer Metastasis . Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
365 Yu, H. and Rohan, T., 2002. Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. , 92, 1472–1489.
366 Yu, H. and Rohan, T., 2002. Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. , 92, 1472–1489.
371 Эту обновленную таблицу нельзя напрямую сравнивать с более ранней версией, приведенной выше, поскольку ВОЗ изменила группировку и методы стандартизации по возрасту. Информация из Гонконга включена в статистику Китая.
372 WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), IARC Cancer Epidemiology Database. GLOBOCAN 2000. Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. Ferlay, J., Bray, F., Piesci, P. and Parkin, D.M. (editors), www.dep.iarc.fr/globocan/database.pdf
373 American Cancer Society. Modelled data: cancer facts and figures, 2006.
377 Pike M.C., Kolonel, L.N., Henderson, B.E., Wilkens, L.R., Hankin J.H., Feigelson, H.S., Wan, P.C., Stram, D.O. and Nomura, A.M., 2002. Breast cancer in a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles: risk factor-adjusted incidence in Japanese equals and in Hawaiians exceeds that in whites. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. , 11 (9), 795–800.
380 American Cancer Society. Modelled data: cancer facts and figures, 2006.
381 Worldwide Cancer Mortality Statistics, ASR(w) for Annual Mortality per 100 000 by sex and age group. http://www.depd.iarc.fr/who/menu.htm
382 Yancik, R. and Ries, L.A., 1994. Cancer in older persons. Magnitude of the problem: how do we apply what we know? Cancer , 74 (7 Suppl), 1995–2003.
383 Silliman, R.A. and Baeke, P., 1998. Breast cancer in the older woman. In: Balducci, L., Ersher, W.B. and Lyman, G.H. Comprehensive geriatric oncology . Amsterdam: Harwood.
384 Welch, H.G., Albertson, P.O., Nease, R.F., Bubolz, T.A. and Wasson, J.H., 1996. Estimating treatment benefits for the elderly: the effect of competing risks. Ann Intern Med , 124, 577–584.
385 Campbell, T. Colin, Campbell, Thomas M. II, Robbins, John and Lyman Howard, 2006. The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health. Benbella Books.
386 Dobson, R., 2006. Breast cancer incidence rises in contaminated areas 10 years after explosion at Chernobyl reactor. BMJ , 332, 567.
387 Jakes, R.W. and others, 2002. Mammographic parenchymal patterns and self-reported soy intake in Singapore Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiological Biomarkers Prev. , 11, 608–613.
392 WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), IARC Cancer Epidemiology Database. GLOBOCAN 2000. Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. Ferlay, J., Bray, F., Piesci, P. and Parkin, D.M. (editors). www.dep.iarc.fr/globocan/database.pdf
393 Campbell, T.C., and Junshi, C., 1994. Diet and chronic degenerative disease perspectives from China. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 59, Suppl., 11 535-11 615.
394 Jakes, Rupert W., Duffy, Stephen W., Ng, Fook-Cheong, Gao, Fei, Ng, Eng-Hen, Seow, Adeline, Lee, Hin-Peng and Yu, Mimi C., 2002. Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Self-reported Soy Intake in Singapore Chinese Women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention , 11, 608–613.
395 Statistical Abstracts of the US, 1994 edition.
396 T. Colin Campbell, quoted in www.milksucks.com/osteo.html; Robbins, John, 1987, A Diet for a New America . Stillpoint Publishing; McDougall, John, 2000. The McDougall Program for Women ; Plant, Jane and Tidey, Gill , 2003. Understanding, Preventing and Overcoming Osteoporosis . Virgin Books.
397 FAO (англ . Food and Agriculture Organization) – продовольственная и сельскохозяйственная организация ООН. – Примеч. ред.
398 IARC Cancer Epidemiology Database. GLOBOCAN 2000, Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. Ferlay, J., Bray, F., Piesci, P., and Parkin, D.M. (editors), www.dep.iarc.fr/globocan/database.pdf
399 Frassetto, L.A., Todd, K.M., Morris, R.C., Jr and Sebastian, A., 2000. Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences , 55A. 10, M585-M592.
400 Jakes, Rupert W., Duffy, Stephen W., Ng, Fook-Cheong, Gao, Fei, Ng, Eng-Hen, Scow, Adeline, Lee, Hin-Peng and Yu, Mimi C., 2002. Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Self-reported Soy Intake in Singapore Chinese Women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention , 11, 608–613.
401 Pringle, H., 1998. Neolithic agriculture: reading the signs of ancient animal domestication. Science . 282, 1448.
402 Thomas M and others, 2007, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci .
403 Latham, M.C., 1997. Human nutrition in the developing world, Rome, 1997. FAO Food and Nutrition Series № 29, Cornell University, Ithaca, N Y.
404 Butler, J., 2006. White lies . Vegetarian and Vegan Foundation.
405 AbuGhazaleh, A.A. and others, 2004. CLA increases in milk when cows fed fish meal and extruded soybeans for an extended period of time. Journal of Dairy Science , 87 (6), 1758–1766.
406 Petit, H.V., 2002. Digestion, milk production, milk composition, and blood composition of dairy cows fed whole fl ax seed. Journal of Dairy Science , 85 (6), 1482–1490.
407 Wahle, K.W. and others, 2004. CLAs: are they beneficial or detrimental to health? Progress in Lipid Research , 43 (6), 553–587.
408 Willett, W.C, and Stampfer, M.J., 2007. Rebuilding the food pyramid. Scientific American , Special edition on diet and health, February 2007, 12–21.
409 The Royal Society, 2000. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Document 06/00. The Royal Society.
410 Butler, J., 2006. White lies . Vegetarian and Vegan Foundation.
411 Qin, L.Q. and others, 2004. Estrogen: one of the risk factors in milk for prostate cancer. Medical Hypotheses , 62 (1), 133–142.
412 Hartman, S. and others, 1998. Natural occurrence of steroid hormones in food. Food Chemistry , 62, 7-20.
413 Buder, J., 2006. White lies . Vegetarian and Vegan Foundation.
414 Ganmaa, D. and Sato, A., 2005. Possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers. Medical Hypotheses , 65 (6), 1028–1037.
415 DEFRA, 2005. Agriculture in the UK , 2004. Norwich, UK: HMSO.
416 Campbell, T.C. and Junshi, C., 1994. Diet and chronic degenerative disease perspectives from China. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 59, Suppl., 11 535-11 615.
417 Charatan, Fred, 2003. Book Review: Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World, by Greg Critser. BMJ , 326, 229.
418 Charatan, Fred, 2003. Book Review: Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World, by Greg Critser. BMJ , 326, 229.
419 Charatan, Fred, 2003. Book Review; Fat Land; How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World, by Greg Critser. BMJ , 326, 229.
420 Grosvenor, C.E. and others, 1992. Hormones and growth factors in milk. Endocrine Reviews , 14 (6), 710–728.
423 le Huerou-Luron, I. and others, 1998. Source of dietary protein influences kinetics of plasma gut regulatory peptide concentration to feeding in preruminant calves. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: A – Molecular and Integrative Physiology , 119 (3), 817–824.
424 Koldovski, O. and others, 1995. Milk-borne hormones: possible tools of communication between mother and suckling. Physiological Research , 1995, 44 (6), 349–351, Koldovsky, O. and others, 1994. Hormonally active peptides in human milk. Acta Paediatrica Suppl., 402, 89–93; Lehy,T. and others, 1990. Promoting effect of bombesin on the cell proliferation in the rat endocrine pancreas during the early post natal period. Regulatory Peptides , 27 (1), 87–96; Pollack, P.F., 1989. Effects of enterally– and parenterally-administrated bombesin on intestinal luminaltryptic activity and protein in the suckling rat. Experienta , 45 (4), 385–388; Lazarus, L.H. and others, 1986. An immunoreactive peptide in milk contains bombesin-like bioactivity. Experienta , 42 (7), 822–823; Jahnke, G.D. and others, 1984. A bombesin immunoreactive peptide in milk. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 81 (2), 578–582.
425 Berseth, C.I. and others, 1990. Postpartum changes in pattern of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in human milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 51 (6), 985–990.
426 Burns, D.M. and others, 1999. Breast cancer cell-associated endopeptidase EC24.11 modulates proliferative response to bombesin, British Journal of Cancer , 79 (2), 214–220; Bold, R.J, and others, 1998. Bombesin stimulates in vitro growth of human breast cancer independent of estrogen receptor status. Anticancer Research , 18 (16A), 4051–4056; Miyazaki, M. and others, 1998. Inhibition of growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice by bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) antagonists RC-3940-11 and RC-3095. European Journal of Cancer , 34 (5), 710–717; Nelson, J, and others, 1991. Bombesin stimulates proliferation of human breast cancer cells in culture. Br. J. Cancer , 63 (6), 933–936; Giacchetti, S. and others, 1990. Characterization, in some human breast cancer cell lines, of gastrin-releasing peptide-like receptors which are absent in normal breast epithelial cells. Int J. Cancer , 46 (2), 293–298; Weber, C.J. and others, 1989. Gastrin-releasing peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and calcitonin-like immuno-reactivity in human breast cystfluid and gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity in human breast carcinoma cell lines. Surgery , (6), 1134–1139 (disc. 1139–1140).
427 Markwalder, R. and others, 1999. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in the human prostate: relation to neoplastic transformation. Cancer Research , 59 (5), 1152–1159; Festuccia, C. and others, 1998. In vitro regulation of pericellular proteolysis in prostatic tumor cells treated with bombesin. Int. J. Cancer , 75 (3); 418–431: Krongrad, A. and others, 1997. Endopeptidase 24.11 activity in the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PPC-1. Urological Research, 25 (2), 113–116; Jungwirth, A. and others, 1997. LHRH antagonist Cetrolix (SB-75) and bombesin-antagonist RC-3940-II inhibit the growth of androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer in nude mice. Prostate , 32 (3), 164–172; Larran, J. and others, 1996. In vitro characterization of bombesin and calcitonin on the proliferation of PC3, DK145 and LNCaP cancer prostatic cell lines. International Journal of Developmental Biology, 1996 (Suppl. 1), 275S–276S; Aprickian, A.G. and others, 1996. Bombesin specifically induces intracellular calcium mobilization via gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in human prostatic cancer cells. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology , 16 (3), 297–306; Bologna, M. and others, 1989. Bombesin stimulates growth of human prostatic cancer cells in vitro. Cancer , 63 (9), 1714–1720; Wasilenko, W.J. and others, 1996. Effects of the calcium influx inhibitor carboxyamido-triazole on the proliferation and invasiveness of human prostate tumor cell lines. Int J. Cancer , 68 (2), 259–264.
428 Takeyama, M. and others, 1989. Enzyme immunoassae of gastrin-releasing, peptide (GRP)-like immunoreactivity in milk. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. , 34 (1), 70–74.
429 Ducroc, R. and others, 1995. Immunoreactive substance P and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat milk and in human milk and infant formula's. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 62 (3), 554–558.
430 Lembeck, F. and others, 1979. Substance P as neurogenic mediator of antidromic vasodilation and neurogenic plasma extravasation. Arch. Pharmacol. , 310 (2), 175–183.
431 Khare, V. K. and others, 1998. The neuropeptide/mast cell secretagogue substance F is expressed in cutaneous melanocyticlesions. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology , 25 (1), 2-10.
432 Ducroc, R. and others, 1995. Immunoreactive substance P and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat milk and in human milk and infant formula's. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. , 62 (3), 554–558.
433 Faulkner, A., 1998. Insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in milk and plasma after growth hormone treatment. Biochemical Society Transactions , 26 (4), 386; Silanikove, N. and others, 1998. Metabolic and productive response of dairy cows to increased ion supplementation at early lactation in warm weather. Journal of Dairy Research , 65 (4), 529–543; Ginjala, V. and others, 1998. Determination of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in bovine colostreum samples.