Элективный курс по английскому языку с естественно-научной направленностью young scientists



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Complete the sentences.

  1. Dr Morgan looks at connections between … .

  2. The brain grows very quickly between the ages of … .

  3. The frontal and parietal lobes are very important because they control … .

  4. The brain needs exercise in order to … .




  1. Dr Morgan says, “If teenagers use their brains exercising, their brains will perform better when they are adults”. Do you agree or disagree with his opinion? Why?

  2. Look through the text again and answer the question.

How does Dr Morgan explain the fact that teenagers are often emotional and can be clumsy?


  1. In conclusion let’s make a word cinquain in order to show what you have learnt at our lesson.

1st line: a word or two to name the topic;

2nd line: two or three words that describe the topic;

3rd line: three or four words that express action;

4th line: four or five words that express personal attitude;

5th line: a word or two to rename the topic.
For example:

My friend

Full of sympathy

Listens, talks, understands

Let me be myself

A wonder.



  1. Home assessment. Try to make your own cinquain.



Lesson №12 Stress- what you need to know about it


  1. Make a scheme which must show what stress is.

What is stress?

Stress is your body’s normal reaction to the pressure and challenges of life. Too much stress can make you unhappy or sick.

1. tense

напряжённые

2. sweaty

вспотевшие

3. frequent

частые

4.nausea

тошнота

5. stuttering

заикание

Signs of stress

When you are under the stress you may have tense muscles, sweaty hands, a fast heartbeat or sleeplessness. Stress can cause a loss of appetite or overeating, frequent headaches, stomachaches, nausea, nervous tics or stuttering. People experiencing stress may lose their temper easily, get frustrated about little things, fight or argue a lot, have more accidents and get colds more frequently.


  1. Let exchange your and your partner schemes, check them up. Which one has more details?

There are two basic types of stress:

Positive stress comes from things you enjoy or look forward to. For example, making new friends, playing a sport or acting in a play.

Negative stress comes from things you find unpleasant or threatening.

There is no way to avoid negative stress completely. Positive stress helps make our life interesting.


  1. Give your examples to the statement:”Positive stress helps us to make our life interesting.”

Ask your partners opinion.

Model: - You have got a voyage to Caribbean for your birthday.



  • You have met your best friend from your childhood.

  • Your boyfriend tells you that he loves you.

Sources of stress

Anything that makes you feel excited or uneasy is a source of stress. This happens when you face a challenge or a change. In order to reduce your stress levels you should find out what is causing you to feel stressed. Here are some common causes of stress.

You may feel stressed if you have to take a test, learn a new routine when you change classes or schools, make new friends or break up with someone, have trouble at home, feel anxious about your future not knowing what direction to take in life.




  1. Use this checklist to see how well you deal with stress.







yes

now

1,

Do you often feel overwhelmed by schoolwork or problems?







2.

Do you often lay awake at night worring?







3.

Have you lost interest in things you once enjoyed?







4.

Are you spending a lot more time alone than you used to?







5.

Do you often feel like you are about to “snap” (сломаться)?







6.

Do you seem to get sick more than you used to?






If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, you may need help dealing with stress.





  1. What advice can you give friends? Choose some of them. Explain your choice.

Some advice for reducing stress:

  • Think about what makes you feel stressed. Avoid these things when you can.

  • See problems for what they are. Focus on the problem and think about how to solve it.

  • Be a positive thinker. Keeping a positive attitude can reduce your stress level.

  • Learn to plan your time. List what you have to do. Focus on one task at a time.

  • Do something you enjoy. Set aside time to have fun every day. In short, do anything that helps you to relax-as long as it is healthy.

  • Ask for help. You do not have to handle everything on your own. If you are upset with someone or something, talk about your feelings and concerns with someone you trust. A friend, parent, school counselor or teacher is just some of the people you can turn to.

  • Good health is an important defense against stress. Be sure to:

  1. Eat healthy food.

  2. Get plenty of sleep.

  3. Exercise regularly.

  • Keep a diary. When you write your anger, sadness, disappointment down, you are, in effect, transferring an emotion out of your body and onto paper.




  1. Make a survey. Ask different people how they usually get out of stress. Print pieces of advice how to get out of stress.



Lesson №13 Healthy eating
I. Read the article about healthy eating and answer the following questions.

-What is a healthy weight?

-Why is a healthy weight important?

-Why is losing weight so hard?

-How can you change your lifestyle?

-How can you fit physical activity into your busy day?

A healthy weight is the natural weight you can reach through good eating, regular physical activity, managing stress, and not smoking. Reaching a specific weight is not as important as the lifestyle changes you make to become healthy.

Weight is only one component of health. Even if you carry some extra weight, by eating right and getting plenty of physical activity, you'll feel better, have more energy, and reduce your risk of weight-related diseases. In fact, you may be healthier than a thin person who eats poorly and isn't physically active.

While a diet may help you lose a few pounds quickly, following a strict diet long-term is unrealistic and requires extraordinary strength of will. Once you stop dieting and exercising, the weight comes back. Some people fall into an unhealthy cycle of losing and gaining weight, which may be worse for the body than just being overweight.

It's also difficult to overcome the obstacles to weight loss: lack of time for exercise, huge portions at restaurants, holidays centered around food, and illness or injury.

Research shows that people who are most successful in improving their health have chosen a healthier lifestyle rather than targeted weight loss. A lifestyle of healthy eating and regular physical activity will improve your health and quality of life, no matter what you weigh.

First you'll need to learn the skills to make lifelong changes and find the support you need to create a healthy lifestyle that's right for you. Look for balanced, realistic, and enjoyable ways to fit healthful changes into your life.

Making small changes, such as being aware of your portion sizes, eating more fruits and vegetables, and adding a few more steps to your daily routine, can improve your health.

To be successful in making lifestyle changes:

Don't diet. Abandon the idea that you'll go on a diet and quickly lose a certain amount of weight. This approach almost always fails. Instead, create a plan to eat healthier that works for you.

Think about your relationship with food. Do you overeat? If so, try to analyze why overeat? Are you bored, stressed, or sad? Do you rely on fast foods or convenience foods because you don't know how or don't like to cook? Do you use food as a reward?

Slowly change your eating habits. Rather than following a particular diet, develop a plan for a healthful eating that includes lots of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein such as chicken and fish. You could set a goal of eating at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day. If you make small, reasonable changes, rather than depriving yourself of everything you love, you will be more successful.

Set small goals. Your goals should be specific and within your reach. A goal to simply work out more and eat better is too general. Instead, make a plan to be active 3 to 4 times a week. For example, start with a goal to walk for 15 minutes three times a week, and then slowly increase it to 20minutes 4 times a week. When you reach this goal and it has become routine, set a new one. But realize you may have setbacks now and then; it doesn't mean you've foiled.

Try to make physical activity a regular part of your day, just like brushing your teeth or going to work.

Schedule your activity in the morning if you tend to talk yourself out of it later in the day Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Make a plan to ride your bike twice a week. Walking is an activity that most people can do safely and routinely with family members, friends, coworkers, or pets.

If you don't have time to take one 30 minute walk, break it up into three 10-minute walks.

If you want a more structured way to get exercise, consider joining a health club. Find an activity that you love and feel you can stick with, and then vary it with other activities so you don't get bored. For example, 3 days a week, take a 30-minute walk with a friend and then work out in the gym together. On other days, take a water aerobics class, ride a bike, or take the dog for a hike. Join a volleyball, or basketball league. The more you can find activities you like, the greater your chances for success.

II. Look at the recommendations that the author gives to people, who want to lose weight. Then read the following guidelines, published in a glossy magazine. Decide which of them you should/should not follow. Explain why.

1. Check the calorie and fat value of the food you eat

2. Include at least 3 low calorie meals in your diet each day.

3. If you are not hungry in the morning, skip breakfast

4. If you notice that you are gaining weight, immediately go on a strict diet or starve for a couple of days.

5. Take diet pills to decrease your appetite.

6. Go in for sports.

III. Discuss healthy weight problems.

Read the quotation below and say what you think the author means.



The best way to lose weight is to eat all you want of everything you don’t like.

- Without a second thought make a list of 4 foodstuffs you like most

- Now think a bit and say if the foodstuffs you've named are beneficial to your health.

- In general, do you follow a healthy eating plan? Why?

- What unhealthy eating habits can you name? What can they lead to?

IV. Home assessment. Tell about your lifestyle. What do you like and dislike eating? Is your meal always healthy?

Ask different people the following questions and summarize answers.


  1. Do you prefer white or brown bread?

  2. Do you use mineral water or running water?

  3. What do you usually have with tea (sugar, candies, biscuits)?

  4. Do you often eat fast food and chips?

  5. Do you often have frozen pelmeni, varenniki, ect?


Lesson №14 Healthy eating

I. Tell us about the results of your survey.

II. Read this humorous story and say whose life style you don’t like and why.

In the room where Mr Small, Dr Foam and Mrs Bulmer were talking to the children, there were some really old people. Mr Small went up to one of them. "I see that you're a very old man," he said. "Yes, I am. I'm 90," the old man replied.

"Could you give the children here some advice about a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle?" Mr Small asked.

"Sure. Follow my example. Don't smoke, don't drink, don't eat too much sugar or fat and drink lots of water."

At that moment Dr Foam found another old man, who looked older than the first one. He was sitting in a wheelchair, but his eyes were merry and bright. "How old are you, sir?" Dr Foam asked. "I'm ninety-five," the man replied.

"Can you tell us why you have lived so long?" Doctor Foam asked.

"It's easy. I always do exercise, and I don't smoke or drink. I spend a lot of time in the open air and I'm a vegetarian." Just then Mrs Bulmer decided to join in the conversation. She saw a very, very old man in the corner of the room. He had no teeth or hair and he couldn't see or hear very well, so she had to come very close to him. The children followed her.

"May I ask you a couple of questions, sir," she shouted.

"Yes," the old man whispered.

"Why have you lived so long, sir?" Mrs Bulmer asked.

"I don't know," the man replied.

"Tell us about your lifestyle," Mrs Bulmer continued.



"OK, then. I smoke thirty cigarettes a day and drink a bottle of whisky every day. Sometimes I also have two bottles of beer. I never eat vegetables or fruit and I live on chocolate and cakes."

"How old are you, sir?" Mr Bulmer exclaimed.

"I'm forty," the "old" man replied.

II. Choose the correct word and translate the sentences into Russian

1. Food that is half-cooked is called fresh food / convenience food,__________________________________________________________

2. A healthy diet which contains fruit, vegetables, meat, milk and cereals is a balanced diet/calorie-controlled diet._________________________________

3. Pork, butter and cream are products which contain a lot of fat/protein. _______________________________________________________________



4. People who have excess weight should avoid food which contains fat and sugar/ iron. _____________________________________________________

5. Laura wants to lose weight and skips supper / has an ice cream before bedtime. ________________________________________________________

6. The English say you should leave the table before you feel full / have a second dessert. ___________________________________________________

7. In order to avoid bad breath you should brush your teeth regularly / have a sweet instead of dinner.___________________________________________

8. Vegetarians are people who don't eat meat. They eat mostly fish / vegetables._______________________________________________________

III. Find the odd one out

1. Balanced, healthy, casual, strict, vegetarian — DIET

2. To count, to burn, to eat, to diet — CALORIES

3. Healthy, excess, exciting, unhealthy — LIFESTYLE

4. Physical, every day, calorie, morning — ACTIVITIES

5. To watch, to exercise, to lose, to gain, to control — WEIGHT

6. Slow, fast, vegetarian, disgusting, delicious, restaurant —- FOOD

IV. Fill in the gaps to complete the sentences.

1. — Why are you eating so much?

— I'm________________ a diet?

— What?


— Yes, it's a special diet for very thin people. I'm trying to ________________ some weight.

— You're lucky. Everybody wants to_____________ weight.

— I don't agree with you.

2. — I'm___________. Let's have something to eat quickly!

— There's a McDonald's round the corner.

— Oh, no. I don't like_________ food. It's__________ for your health.

— True, McDonald's is not for somebody who counts ______________ . Let's go somewhere else.
X. Home assessment.

A lot of teenagers have got bad habits. They drink alcohol, smoke, take drugs. Why do you think they do it? Do you want to follow these habits? Explain your position. Prove that your lifestyle is better.

Make a survey.




you members of your family

Every day

Once a week

Never

Once a moth

On special occasion

With parents

Alcohol






















Smoking






















Drugs























Lesson №15 Food labeling too much to swallow


  1. Before reading the text, answer the questions.

Have you ever heard about Genetically Engineered Food which is also called GM food?

Have your relatives or friends heard of GM food?

What sort of food do you think it is?

Why is there so much talk about this food?

How well is food labelled in your country?

What do you know about genetically modified (GM) food?




Ingest

глотать

Condiment

приправа

Lurk

притаиться

Sizzling

(зд.) жаркий

Renounce

отрекаться

Prompt

Outraged

подсказывать

возмущенный



Impact

влияние

Altered

изменённый

Compulsory

обязательный

Hasty

поспешный

For granted

без доказательств

Persuasive

убедительный

Unwitting

невольный

Mandatory

обязательный

Daunting

Запугивающий

Tuck

Зд. Вставить, ввести




BACON on a bun with lettuce and tomato, please.



But hold the human, scorpion and flounder bits ...”

Genetically engineered food is in every meal we eat. Unless you're a strictly organic vegetarian, you have already ingested vast quantities of ordinary staples (soya, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) juiced up with assorted viruses, bacteria and other toxins that have never been tested for long-term safety.

True, you're not actually chewing down on scorpions when some of their genetic material has been cleverly introduced into a vegetable. But wouldn't you like to have a choice?

When you peer at the fine print while trying to shop conscientiously, wouldn't you appreciate knowing that the No fat! you're about to buy is loaded with extra sugar? Right now, the label doesn't have to breathe a word about any of the less desirable elements lurking in the food.

What a contrast to Britain, where a campaign by consumers has forced major grocery chains and packagers to renounce genetically modified (GM) foods entirely. Prompted by an outraged public, the European Union has already rejected genetically altered crops from North America and insisted on distinctive marking of GM packaged foods.

It's our turn now, if we care to take it. Maybe Canadians have finally learned we can't take public safety for granted. Two new campaigns are under way: The Alliance for food Label Reform is lobbying for compulsory nutrition labeling, and the Council of Canadians will soon begin a push to label all genetically altered foods. Both organizations have rafts of persuasive evidence. The alliance points out that 86 to 90 per cent of Canadians consistently tell pollsters that they want clear nutritional labeling.

After all, our grocery ignorance is scary: In a recent national survey, 57 per cent said that, when an ingredient (like fat) was not listed on the package, that meant the ingredient wasn't there.

In the name of public health and disease prevention, the alliance wants easy-to-read listings on most foods. None of that should be too daunting for an industry that can Mongolian fish genes into beets.

By itself, truth in packaging has a startling impact on what gets made and sold. The year after the U.S. began compulsory labeling, sales of high-fat ice cream went flat, and 1,500 reduced-fat products made their hasty debut.

The Council of Canadians, meanwhile, points out that every one of us is an unwitting subject in the mass testing of biotech foods.

Maybe GM foods will bring us enormous health benefits in the future. And maybe not.

Right now, the government is reviewing its labeling policies, and already the big food companies are lobbying against any change.

If you beg to disagree, write to Health Minister Allan Rock and tell him you want mandatory labeling of all nutritional ingredients. Be more like the English: Make a food fuss. \Toronto Star\


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