Элективный курс по английскому языку с естественно-научной направленностью young scientists



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II. Answer the questions:

  1. How common is genetically engineered food? Give some examples.

  2. What part of a scorpion might you find in your vegetables?

  3. Why have British stores rejected GM foods?

  4. Were 57% of Canadians right or wrong to think that an unlisted ingredients was not in a food product? Justify your answer with words from the text.

  5. Why does the author think we should worry about GM foods?

  6. Who does the author admire, and why?

III. Discuss.

  1. Do you think food labeling is important? Why, why not?

  2. Have there been any food scares in your country similar to the one in the UK (see ammunition box)? Describe them in detail.

  3. Why do you think governments have been slow to enforce food labeling?

  4. Do people have enough knowledge to make decisions about food matters, or should we leave them to government experts?

  5. Who has more power in your country: the farmers, or the shops that sell the food?

  6. How much do you personally care about what you eat? Do you follow a diet? Eat any special foods? Check food .labels? Why, why not?

  7. What's your opinion on GM foods (see ammunition box) ?

………………………………………………………………………………….

Ammunition box.

Key words

Technology use of scientific or industrial methods

Crop a plant that is sown by farmers, usually to be eaten

Yield the amount of crops you get

Consequence something that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions

Environment the air, water and land in which people, animals and plants live

To sow to plant or scatter seeds

Test crops crops that have been planted as a trial

Regulations official rules

Consumer someone who buys a product

……………………………………………………………………………………………


IV.Home assessment. Find in the internet the information about G.M. food. Read examples.
Lesson №16 Food labeling too much to swallow

  1. Examine the handy hints.


Handy hints

Agricultural production has dramatically increased, but at the expense of a number

of food scares.

* Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE or Mad Cow Disease) affected UK cattle in the 1990s. A fatal virus that attacks the brain, it is alleged to be connected to the human form (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) and led to a worldwide ban on British beef for some years. The disease was linked to cattle being given feed that was contaminated

* GM (genetically modified) food. This is food that has been altered by taking the gene from other species and adding them to a food to give it extra attributes (such as the beetle resistant potato in the article). Its supporters claim it will vastly improve agricultural yields, whilst its opponents claim it is untested and potentially dangerous

* EU law requires food ingredients containing GM soya or maize to be labeled, but where GM material - protein or DNA is removed in the processing, the labels do not have to state that ingredients come from GM source

*GM crops could help combat malnutrition, which affects about 800 million people, and feed the projected three billion growth in world population by 2030.

……………………………………………………………………………….



II. . A Role-play: In groups of three. A firm producing GM foods has applied to the government for a license to grow its products in your country. You have to make a decision on whether to grant the license.

Student A, take the role of the minister:

*If you agree to grant the license, the company will bring millions of pounds of investments into the country, which in turn will mean many new jobs. However, public opinion is currently anti GM foods and the move will prove very unpopular.

*If you don't agree, your decision will probably be popular with many people. However, the company will take its business to another country, and you will lose the investment, jobs, and knowledge in a new and potentially very lucrative I technology.
Student B, take the role of the firm:

You are keen to be granted this licence. You need to put forward the advantages of GM crops.



Student C, take the role of the farmer:

You are keen for the experiment to go ahead, but want to know of any potential risks. Also, you are concerned about local reaction.


Make your decision using the information above and based on the group's feelings about GM foods. When you finish, compare your decision with those of other groups in the class. Were they the same, or very different?

VI. Home assessment.

1. Write an essay: GM foods will not combat world poverty. Discuss.



Lesson №17 What is a human clone?

I. Find English equivalents for the following words and expressions in the text.

-глупые зомби

-двойники

-будут вынашиваться и рождаться после 9 месяцев

-достичь взросления

-различные отпечатки пальцев

-рабство человека было запрещено

-на добровольной основе отдельного человека

-дать своё согласие

-позволять бездетным парам

-отрицательные последствия

-запрещать давать согласие взрослым



II. The title, the first sentence and some words from the text are given below. Pick the points that you think are mentioned in the text.

What is a human clone?

A human clone is really just a time-delayed identical twin of another person.

Because of these differences …

…on an individual voluntary basis

…at least two good reasons…


You can start in this way: The text tells us:


  1. Read the text “What is a human clone?” and underline the sentences that best some up the main idea of the text.

What is a human clone?

A human clone is really just a time-delayed identical twin of another person. Science fiction novels and movies have given people the impression that human clone would be mindless zombies. Frankenstein monsters or "doubles". This is all complete nonsense. Human clones would he human beings just like you and me, not zombies. They would be carried and delivered after nine months by a human mother and raised in a family just like everyone else. They would require 18 years to reach adulthood just like everyone else. Consequently, a clone-twin will be decades younger than the original person. There is no danger of people confusing a clone-twin with the original person. As with identical twins, the clone and DNA donor would have different fingerprints. A clone will not inherit any of the memories of the original person. Because of these differences, a clone is not a Xerox copy or "double" of a person, just a much younger identical twin. Human clones will be human beings in every sense. You could not keep a clone as a slave. Human slavery was abolished in the USA in 1865.

It should be emphasized that all human cloning must be done on an individual voluntary basis. The living person, who is to be cloned, would have to give their consent, and the woman, who gives birth to the clone-twin and raises the child, must also be acting voluntarily. No other scenario is conceivable in a free democratic country. Because cloning requires to gestating the baby, there is no danger of evil scientists creating thousands of clones in secret laboratories. Cloning will be done only as the request and with the participation of ordinary people, as an additional reproduction option.

Many people have asked "Why would anyone want to clone a human being?" There are at least two good reasons: to allow families to conceive twins of exceptional individuals, and to allow childless couples to reproduce. In a free society we must also ask "Are the negative consequences sufficiently compelling that we must prohibit consenting adults from doing this?" We will see that in general they are not.


  1. Complete the following statements.

  1. Human clones wouldn’t be zombies because …

  2. There is no danger of people confusing a clone-twin with the original person because …

  3. There is no danger of evil scientists creating thousands of clones in secret labs because …

  4. Some people want to clone a human being because of two reasons …




  1. In groups discuss advantages and disadvantages of human cloning.




  1. Home assessment. Be ready to speak on the following things:

What have you read about cloning? Give examples.

Say if you believe or not in the idea of cloning. Give your reasons.

Занятия профильного обучения



Примерное тематическое планирование занятий профильного курса




Тема

Кол-во часов

1

Леонардо да Винчи

1

2

Изобретатель телефона Александр Белл

1

3

Мобильная революция

1

4.

Д.Л.Беард: первые шаги телевидения

1

5

Альфред Нобель

1

6-7

Пётр Капица

2

8-9

Жорес Алфёров

2

10-11

Виталий Гинзбург

2

12-13

Николай Семёнов

2

14

Симпсон: анестезия

1

15-16

Флеминг и его открытие

2

17

Урок творческих итоговых работ учащихся

1




Всего

17


Lesson №1 Леонардо да Винчи


  1. Brainstorming.

What are your associations with the word “science”? Fill in this word web. Then show it to your partner, discuss the ideas and try to add more to your word web.

scientistssssss

Science



  1. Before you read the text “Leonardo da Vinci”, look at these phrases, try to say what this text can be about.

  • had many talents

  • watched the birds’ flight

  • a machine with wings, ropes and pedals

  • statue of a man on horseback

  • explored the life of plants, flowers and trees

  • studied the heavens

  • painted

2b) Now divide into groups of 3 or 4 pupils, read the text and do the tasks.

Group 1. Describe Leonardo as an artist.

Group 2. Describe Leonardo as an architect and an engineer.

Group 3. Describe Leonardo as an astronomer.




  1. Read and say what you have learnt about Leonardo da Vinci and his inventions.

Backwards

в обратном направлении

Cannon

пушка, орудие

Cast

отливать

Horseback

верхом на лошади

Jumble

куча, кипа

Immovable

неподвижный

Revolve

вращаться

Steadfast

устойчивый

Universe

мир, вселенная

Leonardo was the greatest artist in the world. He was also an astronomer, an architect and an engineer who made hundreds of inventions. He loved to do wonderful machines. His imagination made him impatient, and it was hard for him to finish anything.

Leonardo would buy lovely birds at the bird market. Taking them to his tower, he set them free. Leonardo studied their flight carefully. “I will fly too,” he thought.

So he made a machine with wings and ropes and pedals, and Marco , his youngest pupil, tested it. The machine trembled and shook like a bowl of pudding, but it didn’t fly. Leonardo made many such machines. next, Leonardo made a giant figure of a man on horseback. It was to be the largest statue in the world, but it was never cast in bronze. Some said that metal was sent off to make a cannon. Some said that Leonardo did not know how to finish the statue.

Leonardo made drawings of the bones, muscles, and organs of human beings and animals. He also explored the life of plants, flowers and trees. His 5000 pages of notebooks are a jumble of notes and drawings. He drew stars, flowers geometrical forms, and horse’s head side by side.

Leonardo studied the heavens and made notes on the wonders of the landscape of the skies.

In 1492 most people believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe, steadfast and immovable, with the sun and stars revolving around it.

Leonardo’s studies told him something else. In his notebooks he wrote left-handed and backwards. Why? Perhaps it was to keep people from reading what they couldn’t understand. In one notebook there was a sentence EVOM TON SEOD NUS (THE SUN DOES NOT MOVE).

At last Leonardo began to paint. He made a design so extraordinary that all Florence came to marvel. Alas! The wall was as porous as a sponge! As the paint sank in, the wonderful picture disappeared before their eyes. So he painted Mona Lisa insdead.


  1. Read the following sentences. Look carefully at the underlined words. Are they correct ( √), or should they be deleted (×)? Decide in each case.

1. Remember that the history of science and technology is a history of mistakes as well as. ______

2. A scientist has to start somewhere, so he starts with a guess and tries to prove it wrong. ______

3. Having knowledge doesn’t necessarily make us wise: we know that about pollution, but we still fly and drive. _______

4. There are also issues such as global warming about which it seems even the experts can’t agree. _______

5. Man’s unstoppable hunger for energy is leading to the terrible damage to the planet. _______

6. Growing interest in the potential of alternative sources of energy is a course for some of cautious optimism. ______



  1. Home assessment. Write 5 questions to your friend about Leonardo da Vinci .


Lesson № 2 Александр Белл


  1. What do you know about the person who invented the telephone? Read the text.

transmission n - producing a signal by electronic means such as radio waves that can be heard by people elsewhere; a radio or television broadcast;

stone-deaf adj - completely deaf;

reverse v - to make sth the opposite of what it was; to change sth completely; to exchange two positions;

diaphragm ['daiǝfræm] n - any thin sheet of material used to separate the parts of a machine;

coil [koil] - a length of covered wire wound in continuous circles,through which an electric current can pass;

induce v - to persuade or influence sb, to do sth; to cause sth;
What was the first telephone like?

We all love to chat on the phone but how often do we pick up the telephone without a second thought as to how it works, or where it came from? The first telephone conversation took place on 10th March 1876 when Scottish inventor Alexander Graham Bell sent a telephonic transmission to his assistant "Mr Watson, please come here, I want you."



How did Bell get an idea to make a system for transmitting sound?

In 1872 Bell was appointed Professor of Vocal Physiology at Boston University, Massachusetts. It was here that be met his future wife, Mabel Hubbard, who had been stone-deaf from birth, and who had been sent by her father to learn the new language that was being taught by Bell.

Bell had become interested in deafness from a very early age. His mother was deaf, and although she was a very talented pianist she could only make sound contact by reversing her hearing tube and attaching the ear-pieсe to the soundboard of the piano.

Alexander Bell set to construct an artificial ear. He found that if an iron diaphragm were made to vibrate near a magnet with a coal of wire round it, with the aid of a battery, a current was induced in the coil. Thus the vibrations of air caused by human speech, music or any other sound could be convened into varying electrical current and conveyed along an electric wire. Thus in his attempts to produce a ‘hearing aid’ he had invented a system for transmitting sound.

On 2nd June 1875, Bell and his assistant, Thomas Watson, were tinkering with the apparatus when Bell found, to his utter astonishment, that it would transmit sounds along an electrical wire without help from a battery. He had invented the telephone (as he called it remembering Philip Reis and his Edinburgh days). Several months later, he and Watson fitted up a transmitter in the attic of his house and a receiver in a room downstairs. Watson stood by the receiver while Bell spoke into the transmitter. The words that he spoke '''Mr. Watson, please come here, I want you" have become famous all over the world. One minute later Watson was bounding up the stairs. “I could hear you," he cried. "I could hear you”
Has his invention interested the world?

Bell's invention was a big hit not only in America but in Britain too. A telephone wire was set up between the high steeple of Bow Church and the street below. Londoners queued up and paid one penny to say “How do you do?” to a man on top of the steeple, and hear him reply "Very well thank you'

Thomas Alva Edison, who improved on Bell’s invention by developing a more efficient transmitter and receiver, incidentally “invented" the word “Hello” in the 1860's. When using the telephone, he wanted a word that would immediately attract attention and so he used Hello" instead of the word "Hallo" that had been in common use as a form of greeting for centuries.

In 1915 coast-to-coast telephone communion was established in a link-up between New York and San Francisco. Alexander Bell was asked to open it. He insisted that his former assistant, Thomas Watson should also take part and should be stationed at the end of a telephone in San Francisco. Bell in New York repeated the famous words that he had spoken forty years before in the little house in Boston "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you". It is said that Watson laughed. “Thanks for the invitation, boss, but it would take me a week now".

When Alexander Graham Bell died on 22nd if August 1922, all the telephones in the United States and Canada were kept silent for a short period as a tribute to him.


  1. Match the events for the given dates.

1876




1872




1875




1915




1922







  1. Find in the text underlined words and explain how they were formed. Make your own sentences with these words.

  2. What questions would you ask Alexander Bell?

  3. Home assessment. Write an assay “Can I live a day without a telephone?”



Lesson №3 Mobile revolution


  1. A lot of wonderful inventions and discoveries have been made in the field of science and technology recently. They are changing the life of millions of people all over the world.

What do you think are the most important ones? Read the following list, and think about how these things have changed the way we live. Say at least one reason why you think each of them is important.

  1. cars

  2. the Internet

  3. space flight

  4. planes

Are there any other important discoveries or inventions? What do you think should be added to the list? (television, computer, microwave oven, mobile telephone, etc.)

  1. Read the article about mobile phones. Then choose the correct ending: a, b, c, or d, to complete statements 1-5.

MOBILE REVOLUTION

No consumer product in history has caught on as quickly as the mobile phone, global sales of which have risen from six million in 1991 to more than 400 million a year now.

The arrival of the mobile phone has transformed our lifestyles so much that men now spend more time on the phone than women, according to the results of our special opinion poll.

Mobile phones are no longer just the domain of the teenager and, in fact, just as many 40- and 50-somethings now own a mobile phone as the 15 to 20 age group (slightly below 70%). Even among the over 65s more than 40% now have a mobile.

The survey found that men with mobile phones (72% of all men) spend more than an hour a day making calls on an average weekday. The average man spends sixty-six minutes on his landline or his mobile, compared with fifty-three minutes before the mobile phone revolution.

But the poll reveals that, while men are using their phones a lot more, women are actually spending less time on the phone. Slightly fewer women (67%) have a mobile phone, and the survey shows that the average amount of time they spend on the phone on a weekday has gone down from sixty-three minutes before they got a mobile to fifty-five minutes now. The explanation might lie in the fact that men love to play with techno toys while women may be more conscious of the bills they are running up.

Innovation in mobile phones has been happening so fast that it's difficult for consumers to change their behaviour. Phones are constantly swallowing up other products like cameras, calculators, clocks, radios, and digital music players. There are twenty different products that previously might have been bought separately that can now be part of a mobile phone. Mobiles have changed the way people talk to one another, they have generated a new type of language, they have saved lives and become style icons.

Obviously, the rich have been buying phones faster than the poor. But this happens with every innovation. Mobile phone take- up among the poor has actually been far quicker than it was in the case of previous products, such as colour television, computers and Internet access. Indeed, as mobile phones continue to become cheaper and more powerful, they might prove to be more successful in bridging the gap between the rich and the poor than expensive computers,

There are obviously drawbacks to mobiles as well: mobile users are two and a half times more likely to develop cancer in areas of the brain adjacent to their phone ear, although researchers are unable to prove whether this has anything to do with the phone; mobile thefts now account for a third of all street robberies in London, and don't forget about all the accidents waiting to happen as people drive with a mobile in one hand. But, overall, mobile phones have proved to be a big benefit for people.


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