Role play. Imagine that you are giving an interview to a journalist of a teenagers’ magazine.
Answer the question: “ What is the role of mobile phones nowadays”?
Group work. Write about advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones.
Home assessment. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones.
Lesson №4 John Logie Baird
When do you think the first TV was watched? Read the text.
The television is another great invention to come out of Scotland. To all of us who enjoy relaxing in front of the television, we have a Scotsman to thank. John Logie Baird from Helensburgh (near Glasgow) invented this phenomenally successful communication device, with the first ever television broadcast being transmitted by the BBC in 1929. But the first success took place on 25th October 1925. The first person on television was a boy who worked in the office next to Baird's workroom in London. On 27th January 1926 he demonstrated his invention before an audience of scientists at the Royal Institution in London. In addition, using infrared light, he was able to transmit pictures of people sitting in total darkness. He named it "Noctavision". He moved his experiments to more spacious rooms in Motograph House, near Leicester Square and with two friends he formed "Television Ltd". In 1927 Baird sent pictures from London to Glasgow. In 1928 using a disc with three spirals of holes, each covered with a red, blue, or green filter, he demonstrated colour television in Glasgow. He was also experimenting with, and demonstrating, stereoscopic television. In the same year, using a short-wave transmitter, he sent a television picture to the USA and to a ship, the "Berengaria" in mid-Atlantic. He launched "Baird International Television" with a capital of 1 million pounds to exploit television commercially.
Following a number of tests in 1928 the B.B.C. carried out its first experimental transmission in 1928. It was seen by about 30 people in the U.K. who had bought receivers from Baird International. At this time it was difficult to get vision and sound in phase, but this was achieved in 1930 when Grade Fields, the film actress and singer, took part in the first synchronized transmission.
John Logie Baird was determined to achieve a fully electronic colour television receiver. And he did. Using a two colour (blue-green, orange-red) cathode ray system he demonstrated, on 16th August 1944, the television picture of his favourite tailor's dummy, dressed in a pink jacket and blue trousers, to a group of journalists in his workshop in London.
Baird died in his sleep, aged 58, on 14th June 1946. He was buried in the little churchyard at Helensburgh, the place of his birth.
Fill in the prepositions.
Following a number o… tests in 1928 the B.B.C. carried … its first experimental transmission in 1928.
He sent a television picture … the USA and … a ship, the "Berengaria" … mid-Atlantic.
He demonstrated his invention… an audience … scientists … the Royal Institution … London.
… all … us who enjoy relaxing … the television, we have a Scotsman to thank.
The first person … television was a boy who worked … the office … Baird's workroom … London.
Make a plan of the text.
Give a short summery of the text using the plan.
Home assessment. Write an assay “To watch or not to watch?”
Lesson №5 Alfred Nobel
Read the text and answer the questions after it.
NOBEL Alfred Bernhard (1833-96), Swedish chemist and inventor was born in Stockholm. After receiving an education in Saint Petersburg, Russia; France and the USA, he returned to St. Petersburg where he worked in his father’s company, developing mines, torpedoes and other explosives during the Crimean War 1853-56. After the war his father went bankrupt and in 1859 the family returned to Sweden.
He invented dynamite in 1867 and smokeless gunpowder in 1887. He built a network of factories to manufacture dynamite and corporations to produce and market his explosives. Nobel registered over 350 patents, many unrelated to explosives (e. g., artificial silk and leather).
Both his worldwide interests in explosives and his large holdings in the Baku oil fields of Russia brought him an immense fortune.
Though he was essentially a pacifist and hoped that the destructive power of his inventions would help bring an end to wars, he was labeled “ a merchant death” for inventing an explosive used in war. Perhaps to counter this label, he left most of his immense fortune, which was from worldwide explosives and oil interests, to establish the Nobel Prizes, which would become the most highly regarded of all international awards.
What was happened in: -1833; -1853-56; -1859;- 1867; -1887; -1896?
What was Alfred Nobel?
Where did he study?
Where did he work at first?
What can you say about his worldwide interests?
Why did he establish the Nobel Prizes?
Read the text and make up the plan. Some word groups help you:
-…to persons or institutions for…
-…winner receives a gold medal and a diploma…
-…the prize can be divided among three people…
- The fund is controlled by…
-…which serves for two-year periods and consists of six members…
- The first Nobel Prizes were…
Nobel Prizes are awards granted annually to persons or institutions for outstanding contributions during the previous year in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, international peace and economics.
In addition to a cash award, each Nobel Prize winner also receives a gold medal and a diploma bearing the winner’s name and field of achievement. The judges often divide the prize for achievement in a particular field among two or three people. Dividing the prize among more than three is not allowed. If more than three people are judged to be deserving of the prize, it is awarded jointly. The fund is controlled by the board of directors of the Nobel Foundation, which serves for two-year periods and consists of six members: five elected by the trustees of the awarding bodies mentioned in the will, and the sixth appointed by the Swedish Government. The six members are either Swedish or Norwegian citizens.
To further the purposes of the foundation, separate institutes have been established, in accordance with Nobel’s will, in Sweden and Norway for the advancement of each of the five original fields for which the prizes are awarded. The first Nobel Prizes were awarded on December 10, 1901.
Ask each other questions about the process of Nobel Prizes awards.
Home assessment. Do you know any Nobel Prizes winners?
Lesson №6 Pyotr Kapitsa
Read the text and say what Kapitsa was awarded for.
The royal Swedish Academy of science press release: the1978 Nobel prize in physics. 17 October 1978
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics in two equal parts:
One to Professor Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, Institute of Physical Problems, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low temperature physics;
and the other, to be shared equally between Dr Arno A. Penzias and Dr Robert W. Wilson, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey, USA, for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.
Read the text about th life of famous scientist and fill in the table given after the text.
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitza (1894-1984)
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitza was born in Kronstadt, Russia, in 1894. He graduated from the Polytechnical Institute, Petrograd in 1919, and had taught electrical engineering at the Physicotechnical Institute in Petrograd for two years when he was selected to join a scientific commission to the University of Cambridge, England.
In 1921 Kapitsa was sent to England on Lenin’s instructions to renew scientific contacts. There he worked in the famous Cavendish Laboratory headed by Rutherford. In 1929 Kapitsa was elected a member of the Royal Society for his outstanding scientific work in the production of large magnetic fields.
In 1934 he returned to Moscow where he organized the Institute for Physical Problems at which he continued his research on strong magnetic fields, low temperature physics and cryogenics.
During World War II Kapitsa was engaged research on the production and use of oxygen, and he found an efficient way to produce large quantities of liquid oxygen that proved crucial to the wartime soviet steel industry.
Kapitsa’s research on high-power microwave generators in the late 1950s turned his interests to controlled thermonuclear fusion, about which he published a series of papers beginning in 1969.
He was one of the founders of the Moscow Physico-Technical Institute (MFTI), and the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics.
In the 1960s Kapitsa was one of the Soviet scientists who campaigned to preserve Lake Baikal from industrial pollution. He was a member of the Soviet National Committee of the Pugwash movement of scientists for peace and disarmament.
Use this table and tell about the most important events in Kapitsa’s life.
Home assessment. Do you think that his work was important for our country? Why?
Lesson №7 Peotr Kapitsa
Read information about inventions of P.Kapitsa.
All objects and matter consist of small particles-atoms and molecules- that are in constant motion. The temperature of the matter or body is dependent on the intensity of this so-called heat movement. When the movement is halted, the temperature of the body drops to absolute zero.
Absolute zero, the lowest temperature theoretically possible, is characterized by complete absence of heat, at approximately -273,6º C, or zero degree on the Kelvin scale (0 K). At this temperature matter would possess zero entropy and maximum molecular order, the volume of an ideal gas would vanish, and a thermodynamic heat engine would operate at 100 percent efficiency. Absolute zero cannot be reached experimentally, although it can be closely approached. Special procedures are needed to reach very low, or cryogenic, temperatures.
Low-temperature physics is called cryogenics. The word is derived from the Greek kryos, meaning “icy cold’. Cryogenics deals with the properties of materials at temperatures immediately above the absolute zero point. It has been shown that at these temperatures many kinds of materials acquire radically different properties. Many metals and alloys, for instance, become what is known as superconductive.
In 1934, Kapitsa constructed a new device for producing liquid helium, which cooled the gas by periodic expansions. For the first time, a machine had been made which could produce liquid helium in large quantities without previous cooling with liquid hydrogen. This heralded a new epoch in the field of low-temperature physics.
As a result of his remarkable experimental and technical abilities, Kapitsa has played a leading role in low-temperature physics for a number of decades. He has also shown an amazing capacity to organize and to lead work: he established laboratories for the study of low temperatures in Cambridge, United Kingdom and Moscow. Kapitsa’s discoveries, ideas and new techniques have been basic to the modern expansion of the science of low-temperature physics.
Make a list of special words and fid their meanings and explanations.
Why do you think his discoveries in low-temperature physics were important?
Read the text aboutpractical applications of cryogenics
Cryogenics has several practical applications. Among the many important industrial applications of cryogenics are the large-scale production of oxygen and nitrogen from air. The oxygen can be used in a variety of ways, for example, in rocket engines, for cutting and welding torches, for supporting life in space and deep-sea vehicles, and for blast furnace operation. The nitrogen goes into the making of ammonia for fertilizers, and it is used to prepare frozen foods by cooling them rapidly enough to prevent destruction of cell tissues. It can also serve as a refrigerant for transporting frozen foods. Cryogenics has also made possible the commercial transportation of liquefied natural gas.
Cryogenic surgery, or cryosurgery, is being used in eye surgery, in which a freezing probe is briefly applied to the outside of the eye to repair a break in the retina. A similar technique has also been employed to destroy brain tumors and to arrest cervical cancer.
Without cryogenics, nuclear research would lack liquid hydrogen and helium for use in particle detectors and for the powerful electromagnets needed in large particle accelerators. Such magnets are also being used in nuclear fusion research. Infrared devices, masers, and lasers can employ cryogenic temperatures as well.
Make a list of using cryogenics in modern life.
Home assessment. Can we live without Kapitsa’s discoveries? Why do you think so? Explain your point of view.
Lesson №8 Zhores Alferov
Read the Nobel Prize press release and tell why these persons were awarded the Nobel Prize.
10 October 2000
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2000 to scientists and inventors whose work has laid the foundation of modern information technology, IT, particularly through their invention of rapid transistors, laser diodes and integrated circuits (chips).
The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to Zhores I. Alferov A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, and
Herbert Kroemer University of California at Santa Barbara, California, USA,
“for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed-and opto-electronics”
and one half to
Jack S. Kilby Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas, USA
“for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”
Read the information about life of ZH. Alferov.
Curriculam vitae Zhores I. Alferov was born in Vitebsk, Belorussia, USSR, on March 15, 1930. In 1952 he graduated from the Department of Electronics of V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. Since 1953 he has been a staff member of the Physico-Technical Institute where he held consecutively the following positions: junior researcher (1953-1964), senior researcher (1964-1967), head of the laboratory (1967-1987), director (1987-present). He earned scientific degrees: a candidate of sciences in technology in 1961 and a doctor of sciences in physics and mathematics in 1970, both from the Ioffe Institute.
He was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of sciences in 1972 and a full member of the Academy in 1979. From 1989 onward, he has been Vice-President of the USSR (Russian) Academy of Sciences and President of its St Petersburg Scientific Center. For his research Professor Zh.I. Alferov was awarded a number of national and international prizes. He is Editor-in-Chief of a Russian journal, Pis’ma v Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki (English-language version-Technical Physics Letters) and a member of the Editorial Board of a Russian journal Nauka I Zhizn’ (Science and Life). Zh.I. Alferov is author of 4 books, 400 articles and 50 inventions on semiconductor technology.
Make notes of the main events of Zh. Alferov’s life.
Home assessment. What do you think made him to achieve so much: family background, his desire to learn more, his ambitions or anything else?
Lesson №9 Zhores Alferov
Read the text and make the list of inventions and their using in modern life.
The rapid development of electronic computer technology really started with the invention of the integrated circuit around 1960 and the microprocessor in the 1970s, when the number of components on a chip became sufficiently large to allow the creation of a complete micro computer. The rapid increase in the number of components was formulated as a prediction in “Moore’s law”: the number of components on a chip will double every 18 months. This has happened since the 1960s and today there are chips with millions of separate components, at prices that are largely unchanged.
Chip development has been matched by equally dynamic and powerful developments in telecommunications technology. Just as the integrated circuit has been and is a prime mover for electronic computer technology, ultra-rapid transistors and semiconductor lasers based on heterostructures of semiconductors are playing a decisive part in modern telecommunications.
Heterostructures in mobile telephones, CD-players, bar-code readers, brake-lights etc.
Heterostructures are very important in technology. Low-noise, high-frequency amplifiers using heterotransistors are used in satellite communications and for improving the signal-no-noise ratio in mobile telephony. Semiconductor lasers based on heterostructures are used in fibre-optical communication, in optical data storage, as reading heads in CD players, as bar-code readers and laser markers, etc. Heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes are used in car brake-lights and other warning signals and may one day replace electric bulbs.
The heterostructure laser
Heterostructures have been crucially important for the development of semiconductor lasers. Zhores I.Alferov of the Ioffe Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Herbert Kroemer, then at Varian in Palo Alto, proposed in 1963, independently of each other, the principle for the heterostructure laser, an invention that is probably as significant as that of the heterotransistor.
Alferov was the first to succeed in producing a lattice-adapted heterostructure with clear borders between the layers. Alferov’s research team succeeded in rapidly developing many types of components built up of heterostructures, including the injection laser which Alferov patented in 1963. A technological breakthrough occurred around 1970 when heterostructure lasers became able to work continuously at room temperatures. These properties have, for example, made fibre-optic communications practically possible.