The people who were to demonstrate the practical possibility of an integrated circuit were two young engineers, Jack S. Kilby and Robert Noyce, working independently of each other.
The integrated circuit is more of a technical invention than a discovery in physics. However it is evident that it embraces many physical issues. One example is the question of how aluminium and gold, which are part of an integrated circuit, differ regarding their adhesion to silicon. Another question is how to produce dense layers that are only a few atoms thick.
It is thus obvious that the development of the integrated circuit prompted enormous investment in research and development in solid-state physics. This has not only led to development in semiconductor technology but also to gigantic development of apparatus and instruments. Continual miniaturization, moreover, has come up against a number of material- physical limitations and problems that have had to be solved.
10 years were to pass from the invention of the transistor before the technology involved had matured sufficiently to allow the various elements to be fabricated in one and of the same basic material, and in one piece. The invention is one in a series of many that have made possible development in information technology.
Fill in the table using the information given in the texts.
Home assessment. Write a short essay: “The great discoveries that have changed our life”
Lesson № 10 Vitaly Ginsburg
Read the text about V. Ginsburg and fill in the table.
In 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to three physicists who have made decisive contributions concerning two phenomena in quantum physics: superconductivity and superfluidity. Superconducting material is used, for example, in magnetic resonance imaging for medical examinations and particle accelerators in physics. Knowledge about superfluid liquids can give us deeper insight into the ways “in which matter behaves in its lowest and most ordered state”.
Ginzburg Vitaly Lazarevich was born 4 October 1916 in Moscow.
Ginzburg Vitaly Lazarevich graduated from the Physics Faculty of Moscow State University in 1938, he defended candidate's (Ph.D.) dissertation in 1940 and doctor's dissertation in 1942. From 1940 up to the present time - he works in P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (from 1971 to 1988 Head of I.E. Tamm Theory Department, at the present time - Adviser of the Russian Academy of Sciences). Since 1945 - he is a professor of Gor' ky State University and from 1968 to the present day - he is a professor of Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology.
Ginzburg Vitaly Lazarevich is the author of several hundred scientific papers and a dozen of books devoted to physics and astrophysics.
In 1953 he is a corresponding member and in 1966 — academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
Ginzburg Vitaly Lazarevich has many awards, among them: the Order of Lenin, the Order "For Services to the Motherland" (1996), the State Prize (1953), the Lenin Prize (1966), the Mandelstom Prize (1947), the Lomonosov Prize (1962), the Vavilov Gold Medal (1995), the Lomonosov Big Gold Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1995), and the Triumph Prize (2002)
He was elected a foreign member of nine Academies of Sciences (or equivalent institutions), including the Royal Society of London (1987), the American National Academy of Sciences (1981) and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1971).
He was awarded the Smolukhovsky Medal of Polish Physical Society (1987), the Gold Medal of the London Royal Astronomic Society (1991), the Bardeen Prize (1991), the Wolf Prize (1994/95), Unesco's Niels Bohr Medal (1998), American Physical Society's 1999 Nicholson Medal.
The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics Laureate.
Write a sort essay: “what is more important: hard work or talent?”
Lesson № 11VitalyGinsburg
A. Read the text about superconductivity and superfluidity and make a list of special words and look them up.
Superconductivity and superfluidity
Superconductivity is a low-temperature phenomenon in which a material loses all electrical resistance when it is cooled to a temperature near absolute zero. This unusual behavior was discovered in 1911 by a Dutch physicist, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. In experiments to measure the resistance of frozen mercury, he discovered that the resistance vanished completely at a temperature of 4.15 K (-289 degrees C).
Vitaly Ginzburg and Alexei Abrikosov, have made decisive contributions to our understanding of how superconductivity and magnetism can coexist. In the 1950s V.Ginzburg together with Lev Landau formulated a theory that could describe how superconductivity disappears at certain "critical" values of electrical current and magnetic fields, in more detail than before. They introduced a measure for the order among electrons, which they called the superconducting order parameter. Guided by a deep physical intuition they went on to formulate mathematical equations whose solution determines the order in a superconductor. They found a close correspondence with what had been measured for superconductors known at the time. It is worth pointing out that the reasoning behind this Ginzburg-Landau theory was of such general validity that it is used today to gain new knowledge in many of the subfields of physics.
III. Look through the text and tell where superconductivity can be applied.
Applications of superconductivity
The discovery of better superconducting compounds is a significant step toward a wider spectrum of applications, including faster computers with larger storage capacities, nuclear fusion reactors in which ionized gas is confined by magnetic fields, magnetic suspension of high-speed ("Maglev") trains, and perhaps most important of all, more efficient generation and transmission v of electric power over long distances.
Superfluidity is a state of matter characterized by the complete absence of viscosity, or resistance to flow. The term superfluidity is applied primarily to phenomena observed in liquid helium at very low temperatures, but the term is also sometimes used to refer to the functionless flow of electrons in certain metals and alloys at very low temperatures.
The phenomenon of superfluidity was discovered in 1937 by the Russian physicist Peter Kapitza. He observed that liquid helium, when cooled below 2.17 K (-270.98° C), could flow with no difficulty through extremely small holes, which liquid helium above that temperature cannot do. He also noticed that on the walls of its container superfluid helium formed a thin film (approximately 100 atoms thick) that flowed against gravity up and over the rim of the container.
Superfluidity can be explained using the theory of quantum mechanics. It occurs when large numbers of atoms or molecules are cooled, in a process known as "condensation", so that they occupy the same quantum energy state. The condensed atoms will therefore interact with each other and their surroundings according to exactly the same physical laws, and, when distributed evenly throughout the normal liquid atoms, create unusual properties such as superfluidity.
Home assessment. Where can you use superconductivity in usual life?
Lesson №11 Nicolay Semenov
Read the text about a Russian Nobel Prize laureate.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Semenov was born in Saratov on April 3, 1896. graduated from Petrograd University in 1917 and in 1920 he took charge of the electron phenomena laboratory of the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute. He lectured at the Polytechnical Institute and was appointed Professor in 1928. In 1931, he became Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics of the U.S.S R. Academy of Sciences (which moved to Moscow in 1943); from 1944 he was a Professor at Moscow State University.
Semenov's outstanding work on the mechanism of chemical transformation includes an exhaustive analysis of the application of the chain theory to varied reactions and in particular to combustion processes. He proposed a theory of degenerate branching which led to a better understanding of the phenomena associated with the induction periods of oxidation processes. Semenov made valuable contributions to the field of molecular physics; he also carried out investigations on electron phenomena, dielectric breakdown and the propagation of explosive waves. Semenov wrote two important books about his work. Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions was published in 1934 with an English edition in 1935. It was the first book in the U.S.S.R. to develop a detailed theory of unbranched and branched chain reactions in chemistry. Some Problems of Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity; first published in 1954, was revised in 1958; there are also English, American, German, and Chinese editions. He became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1929 and Academician in 1932: he was awarded five Orders of Lenin and the Order of Red Banner of Labour. He was a member of the Chemical Society (London), Foreign Member of the Royal Society, and Foreign Member of the American, Indian, German, and Hungarian Academies of Sciences. He also held Honorary Doctorate degrees of Oxford and Brussels Universities. Nikolai Nikolayevich Semenov died in 1986.
Find in the text and translate the words combinations.
mechanism of chemical transformation
an exhaustive analysis of the application of the chain theory
a theory of degenerate branching
the induction periods of oxidation processes
the field of molecular physics
the propagation of explosive waves
Answer the questions.
When Semenov was born?
Where did he work?
What does his work on the mechanism of chemical include?
What did he propose and carry out?
What books did he write?
What awards did he get?
Finish the sentences.
Sevenov’s outstanding work on the mechanism of chemical transformation includes….
He made valuable contribution…
He also carried …
He wrote …
He became …
He was awarded …
He was …
He also helped …
Home assessment. Tell about the important role of the scientific work of N.N. Semenov in the sphere of chemistry. Prove it by the facts from the lesson
Lesson №12 Nicolay Semenov
Read the text and answer the questions.
What is a chemical reaction?
How does it work?
What can show that a chemical reaction takes place?
What do word “reactants” and “products” mean?
Where can we see chemicals reactions?
Chemical reaction: to react or not to react?
A chemical reaction is a process in which substances change into other substances. For this to happen, the bonds between atoms and molecules must break and re-form in different ways. Because the bonds can be strong, energy, usually in the form of heat, is often needed to start a reaction.
Neither matter nor energy is created or destroyed in a chemical reaction - only changed. You know a chemical reaction is taking place if one or more of these occur:
Color changes - Different combinations of molecules reflect light differently. A color change indicates a change in molecules.
Heat content changes - In all chemical reactions, the heat content of the reactants and the content of the products is never the same. Sometimes the difference is great and can be easily detected; at other times, the difference is slight and is more difficult to detect.
A gas is produced - Whenever a gaseous product forms in a liquid solution, bubbles can be seen. A colorless gas produced in a reaction of solids is much harder to detect.
A precipitate form - Precipitates are insoluble products formed by a reaction taking place in a liquid solution. This insoluble product will eventually settle to the bottom, but might immediately appear by turning the clear solution cloudy.
The substances that must come in contact before a chemical reaction can occur are known as "Reactants” and the substances that are formed from the reaction are known as "Products". The chemist denotes a chemical reaction with a reaction arrow " "
Chemical reactions do not occur only in laboratories; they happen all around us — for example, when cars rust and when food is cooked.
Read the text about chemical symbols and give a short summery of it.
All substances are made up of some combination of atoms of the chemical elements. Instead of using full names, scientists identify elements with one- or two-letter symbols. Some common elements and their symbols are carbon, C; oxygen, 0; nitrogen, N; hydrogen, H; chlorine, Cl; sulfur, S; magnesium, Mg; aluminum, Al; copper, Cu; silver, Ag; gold, Au; and iron, Fe.
Most chemical symbols are derived from the letters in the name of the element in English, German, French, Latin, or Russian. The first letter of the symbol is capitalized, and the second (if any) is lower case.
Symbols for some elements known from ancient times come from earlier, usually Latin names: for example, Cu from cuprum (copper), Ag from argentum (silver), Au from aurum (gold), and Fe from ferrum (iron).
The same set of symbols in referring to chemicals is used universally. The symbols are written in Roman letters regardless of language.
Read the text and tell about one type of reactions.
Energy of chemical reactions
Chemical reactions always involve a change in energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. Energy is absorbed or released in chemical reactions. Chemical reactions can be described as endothermic or exothermic reactions.
Chemical reactions in which energy is absorbed are endothermic. Energy is required for the reaction to occur. The energy absorbed is often heat energy or electrical energy.
Chemical reactions in which energy is released are exothermic. The energy that is released was originally stored in the chemical bonds of the reactants. Any reaction that involves combustion (burning) is an exothermic chemical reaction.
Literally speaking, a chain reaction is any group of events linked so that one is the cause of the next.
A chain reaction in chemistry and physics is a process that yields products that initiate further processes of the same kind in a self-sustaining sequence.
A chemical chain reaction is a type of chemical reaction in which the initial products participate in the formation of additional products. This type of reaction has an important role in the plastics industry, and is the natural process that occurs during combustion and the formation of smog.
A nuclear chain reaction is a series of fissions (splitting of atomic nuclei) in which neutrons released by the splitting of some atomic nuclei themselves go to split others, releasing even more neutrons. Such a reaction can be controlled (as in a nuclear reactor) by using moderators to absorb excess neutrons. Uncontrolled, a chain reaction produces a nuclear explosion (as in an atom bomb).
Home assessment. Tell about chemical reactions which take place in our usual life.
Задание №13JamesSimpson: anesthesia
Look through the words and read the text and divide it into logical parts.
bursary -a scholarship or grant award to a student;
anaesthetics - substances that make a person or an animal unable to feel pain, heat, cold, etc in the whole body or part, of the body;
M D -Doctor of Medicine;
midwifery - the work of assisting women in having their babies;
dabble v (in/at/with sth) to take part in sth without serious intentions;
nitrous oxide ['naitras 'oksaid] n - a gas used especially formerly by dentists to prevent one feeling pain;
ether n - a colourless liquid used as an anaesthetic or solvent;
incline , to incline to/towards sth - to have a physical or mental tendency towards sth, to be disposed to do sth;
tumbler n - a drinking glass with a flat bottom, straight sides and no handle or stem;
prostrate ['prostreit] adj - lying stretched out on the ground with one's face downwards;
anaesthetize |a'ni:sOataiz] v- to produce anaesthesia in sb, to make a person unable to feel pain, etc;
stiff - severe, tough;
wither away v - to become weaker, often before disappearing completely,
James Simpson: anesthesia
James Young Simpson was born on 7th June 1811 in the little weaving town of Bathgate, not far from Edinburgh. There his father, David, was the Мain Street baker. James was a very able pupil at school But he always maintained that his mother was his best teacher. Her death, while he was still a boy, was a sore blow to him.
He possessed good scholastic abilities and his elder brothers decided that they would support him at university. So at the age of 14 he became a student of Edinburgh University. He was young, poor, and very lonely away from his family. He took some time to settle to the unfamiliar life. He won the Stuart Bursary' of 10 pounds. He shared accommodation with two hard-working men who were studying medicine and young James fell into their work habits. He also absorbed their love of medicine and some evenings he would go with them to hear lectures on medicine. When he was 16, he switched to the study of medicine.
The sights in the operating theatres were terrible. There were no anaesthetics in those days and often patients had to be dragged to the theatre where they were held by four or five men. The patients were fully conscious and had to endure terrible pain while the surgeon performed the operation with them. Doctors had to work fast but sometimes patients died of shock.
And it was James Simpson who took the terror out of operations. He graduated with an M D.' in 1832 and built up a large and very successful practice in Edinburgh. But his eye was on midwifery. When the Chair in that subject became vacant, he applied for the post and was appointed professor in 1839. Professor Simpson was an immediate and brilliant success. Though midwifery was the Cinderella of medical subjects, the midwifery class of Professor Simpson became the largest in the University. Simpson was on his way to becoming rich. He married, moved into a splendid house, and could now afford a carriage. His fame was spreading His patients included princesses, duchesses, and countesses. Queen Victoria appointed him one of her Majesty's physicians in Scotland.
James Simpson had long been interested in ways of relieving pain and suffering. He had even dabbled in hypnosis. Once Simpson hypnotized a young lady sitting next to him at a party and then forbade her to speak until he gave her permission to do so. Unfortunately he was called from the room and when he returned some time later he found the young lady speechless The lady expressed her anger! Simpson gave up the idea of applying hypnosis to medicine, not because of this incident, but because he found that hypnosis was not reliable.
Simpson turned to the use of anaesthetics. He found out that nitrous oxide (a laughing gas) could destroy physical pain. A very brave young dentist named Morton, in 1846 tried out ether on himself, and was insensible for eight minutes. He realised that it could be used for bigger and longer operations that tooth extraction. Soon the gas was used for surgical operations in Boeton with Morton, the anaesthetist Simpson knew of this work going on in the USA and he used ether as an anaesthetic on a mother while delivering In February 1847 it was a landmark and it went well. But Simpson was not completely satisfied. Ether had a disagreeable "smell and was inclined" to irritate the lining of the nose.
A chemist from Liverpool, Waldie, sent Simpson a small quantity of chloroform and suggested to him that it might be worthy of trial. On 4th November 1847 Simpson had a party. For some time James Simpson and his guests were inhaling different substances without much effect. Then it occurred to Simpson to try chloroform. With each turn bier the inhalers became happier, then suddenly a crash! On awakening James Simpson's first thought was that chloroform was far stronger and better than ether. And his second was to note that he was prostrate on the floor!
The first child to be born while her mother was anaesthetized by chloroform was the daughter of a medical colleague and she was christened "Anaesthesia", When she was 17 she was photographed and she sent a print to Simpson. It is said that he was delighted, but there is no record as to what she thought of her name.
Simpson had to face stiff* opposition, especially from men, who did not feel that it was right to "interfere with Nature". There were also people who believed that the use of chloroform undermined religion. Some thought that a number of deaths were due to the use of chloroform. But it was not until Queen Victoria gave birth to Prince Leopold, while anaesthetized by chloroform, that the opposition began to wither away' What was good enough for the Queen was good enough for everyone! Surgery without chloroform became unthinkable.
Dr James Simpson died on 6th May. 1870. His family was offered a resting place for him in Westminster Abbey, but his wife declined the honour, feeling that he would prefer to be buried in Edinburgh.