Элективный курс по английскому языку с естественно-научной направленностью young scientists


Tell about Simpson’s way to his discovery



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Tell about Simpson’s way to his discovery.

  • Find in the text the extreme ways of using chloroform.

  • Home assessment. Find in the Internet the information about new anesthetics and new methods of anesthesia.


    Lesson №14 Fleming


    1. Look through the words and read the texts. Why is his invention so important nowadays?

    Vocabulary .

    penicillin [.pena'silin] n - a substance obtained from mould used as a drug to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria

    come on v - to begin;

    tissue n - any of the masses of cells of particular types of which animals or plants are made;

    lysozyme n - an enzyme found in tears and eggs which catalyses the destruction of cell walls of certain Grampositive bacteria;

    mould Imauld] n - a fine soft growth like fur that forms on old food or on objects left in warm wet air;

    staphylococcus] n (pi. staphylococci]) a bacterium of the genus Staphylococcus, occurring in grapelike clusters, and sometimes causing pus formation usually in the skin;

    corpuscle) л - any of the red or white cells in the blood,

    secrete v. - (of part of a plant, an animal or a person) to produce a liquid substance;

    abscess n - a swollen part of the body in which a thick yellowish liquid (called pus) has collected.



    Penicillin

    It is believed that the most important discovery of the XX century is the invention of penicillin. At the time when Alexander Fleming was born, in 1881, every wound was a potential amputation, every infection and pneumonia could cause death.

    Next time your doctor gives you penicillin, remember that a long time ago a modest man from Lochfield in Ayrshire, Alexander Fleming, battled to invent this drug. At the time he described the discovery as a "triumph of accident and shrewd observation". Fifteen years later, a team of Oxford scientists developed a method of manufacture which enabled the drug to become widely available and it has come on to save countless lives.

    The great discovery

    Most scientists work very neatly and carefully, but Dr. Alexander Fleming preferred working in a less organized way. In fact, if Alexander Fleming had been a tidy man, he wouldn't have discovered penicillin.

    Dr. Fleming was a scientist at St. Mary's Hospital in London. One day in September 1928, a scientist called Pryce came in to Fleming's laboratory. On the desk there were some dirty glass dishes from old experiments. Fleming picked up one of the dishes to show Pryce. On the dish there were yellow spots of bacteria. But when Fleming looked more closely, he saw a green mould on the dish.

    Fleming noticed something unusual. The yellow bacteria near the mould had disappeared: the green mould had killed them. Fleming was seeing the effects of penicillin for the first time.

    Fleming called the discovery "a chance observation". It was chance that the right kind of mould had grown. It was chance that Fleming hadn't washed his dirty dishes. It was chance that he had picked up the dish with the mould to show to Pryce.

    Fleming thought it was an interesting discovery but he didn't know how important it was. Neither did the other scientists in the hospital. "When I showed it to them they thought it was just a dirty dish," Fleming said. But Alexander Fleming had discovered a drug which has saved millions of lives.



    IV. Say if the statements are right or not. Prove it from the text. Use the expressions.

    Certainly...

    I m afraid that's wrong...

    Of course...

    On- the contrary...

    Sure...

    Surely not...

    You are right.

    You are mistaken...




    Quite correct...

    1. Dr. Fleming was an actor.

    2. On the desk there were some clean glass dishes from old experiments.

    3. On the dish there were green spots of bacteria.

    4. The yellow bacteria near the mould had disappeared: the green mould had killed them.

    5. Fleming was seeing the effect of penicillin for the first time.

    6. Fleming called the discovery "a chance observation".

    7. Fleming knew how important the discovery was.

    8. Alexander Fleming had discovered a drug which had saved millions of lives.

    V. Retell the text, using the words:

    1. a scientist

    2. dirty glass dishes

    3. yellow spots of bacteria

    4. a green mould on the dish

    5. the effect of penicillin

    6. called the discovery...

    7. an interesting discovery

    8. had discovered a drug which...

    1. Home assessment. Tell about the importance of Fleming’s discovery.


    Lesson №15 Fleming

    1. Medicine is very important in our life. Read the text about Alexander Fleming’ life and work

    Alexander Fleming came from a Scottish family of farmers. He did research work at St. Mary's Hospital. And it was quite by chance that he came into contact with the man who was to affect his whole life - Sir Almroth Wright, a famous bacteriologist and a pioneer of vaccine therapy. Alexander Fleming became interested in antibacterial drugs. After military service Fleming returned to laboratory work. He was interested in antibacterial substances which would be nontoxic to animal tissues. The first fruit of his search was the discovery of the lysozyme.

    This discovery in 1928, of the antibacterial powers of the mould from which penicillin is derived was a great triumph. Alexander Fleming found that a liquid mould culture, which he named 'penicillin', prevented growth of staphylococci.

    One day Fleming's assistant brought him a plate on which a colony of dangerous bacteria were being grown. "This plate is spoiled", said the assistant. "Some mould accidentally formed on it and I'll have to throw it away". Fleming was ready to agree. Then he looked at the plate. He had a wonderful power of observation. And for over fifteen years he knew what he was looking for. Now Alexander Fleming noticed that the germs all round the mould were gone. It was a lucky accident that caused the mould, which had floated through the window to land in one of Fleming's cultures. He immediately set about studying it. He put some of the mould on other plates and grew more colonies of it. Now came the most important test of all. Was this new substance toxic to the tissues of an animal? Would it harm the human body at the same time as it killed microbes, like the old antiseptics? Fleming injected a rabbit and a mouse with this substance. It did them no harm! The doctor named this substance Penicillin. It belongs to the same family of moulds that often appear on dry bread, in damp cupboards, or on old shoes, or fruit. In a few days it turns dark green and secretes drops of yellow liquid. This liquid stops the growth of the most common disease germs.

    Fleming was finding out more and more about penicillin. He found that the mould began to produce penicillin on the fifth day, when one drop of penicillin to twenty drops of distilled water would kill microbes... On the eight day penicillin was twenty times as strong! After this it grew weaker.

    Alexander Fleming tried penicillin in the hospital with good results. But the penicillin was seldom at its strongest when it was wanted. Moreover Alexander Fleming couldn't get anyone interested in it, nor a chemist who would extract it for him. Years passed. For ten years Alexander Fleming kept his love for penicillin in his heart. He was still looking for a chemist. Meanwhile, at Oxford, two great research workers, Florey and Chain, had found a new method for extracting pure penicillin. They tried their new powder on different bacteria. Fifty white mice were given a fatal dose of deadly microbes. Twenty-five of these mice were treated with penicillin. After sixteen hours all the mice which had not been treated with penicillin were dead. Of the mice which had been injected with penicillin, all survived. It was the happiest day in Fleming's life. But penicillin had not yet been used on a man. Then one day a case was tried. A policeman was suffering from an infected wound. His whole body was covered with abscesses. There was only a little pure penicillin. The dying man was given the first injection of penicillin. At the end of twenty- four hours there was a great improvement in his condition. But doctors were short of penicillin ... and the man died.

    Alexander Fleming was looking for a way to put penicillin into production. Luckily later the United States Government offered to give several million dollars for large-scale production of penicillin. Three years later, twenty-one American companies were producing enough penicillin to treat seven million patients.

    In 1942 Fleming tried his own first experiment. A friend of his was very ill, dying. After several injections the man was cured! Some years later Fleming went to Sweden to receive his Nobel Prize. In his Nobel Prize lecture, Fleming said, "My only merit is that I did not neglect an observation, and that I pursued the subject as a bacteriologist". Fame and success left Fleming quite unmoved. He remained for the rest of his life the same quiet, natural man. "Everywhere I go people thank me for saving their lives", remarked Fleming. "I don't know why they do it. I didn't do anything. Nature makes penicillin - I just found it".



    He died on 11th March 1955 in London, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. He is known as the "father of antibiotics". The two letters A.F." on a flagstone show where he lies. . II. Read all special words from the text and find their Russian equivalents.

    III. Divide the text into parts.

    IV. Home assessment. What can you tell about Fleming as a man and a scientist?
    Список использованной литературы

    1. Тема «Защита окружающей среды» на уроках английского языка. ИЯШ №6 2000с.27-30 Рабкесова ВЯ

    2. Приложение к ИЯШ «Мозаика» №7, 2008,с.24

    3. Приложение к ИЯШ «Мозаика» №5, 2005,с8.

    4. Приложение к ИЯШ «Мозаика» №5, 2004,с.29

    5. Приложение к ИЯШ «Мозаика» №3, 2008,с.9

    6. Приложение к ИЯШ «Мозаика» №1, 2005,с.24

    7. Приложение к ИЯШ «Мозаика» №1, 2004,с.4

    8. http://baikal.irkutsk.org

    9. http://lake-baikal.narod.ru/cifry.html

    10. http://www.seu.ru/projects/eng/belovezha/forest_danger.htm

    11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aral_Sea

    12. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/188/genetically-engineered-food

    13. http://www.sciaga.pl/tekst/25092-26-genetically_modified_food

    14. http://www.orexca.com/aral_sea.shtml

    15. http://bp21.org.by/en/about/

    16. http://www.baikalsp.ru/eng/baikal.php

    17. http://health.yahoo.com/weightloss-overview/healthy-weight/healthwise--aa122915.html

    18. http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/html/Diet_and_weight.html7print

    19. http://www.hmrpct.nhs.uk/upload/userfiles/image/your_health/bmi.jpg

    20. http://www.nwhb.ie/files/healthpromotion/images/jpg/food_pyramid.jpg

    21. http://www.energyfortoday.eom/images/b/beach2.jpg

    22. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/inventors/indexc. shtml


    Список литературы по экологии (английский язык)

    1. Вайсбурд, М.Л. Обучение реальному общению по экологической тематике на английском языке в условиях международного экологического проекта [Текст] : [В помощь учителю] / М.Л. Вайсбурд, С.Н. Толстиков // Иностр. яз. в шк. - 2002. - N 5. - С. 11-16. - (Теорет. вопросы обучения иностр. яз.)
      2. Змеева, Т А . Англоязычная пресса экологической направленности [Текст] = Ecological aspect in Press : учеб.-метод. пособие по чтению англояз. прессы (NP) / Т.А. Змеева ; М-во образования и науки Рос. Федерации. - М. : МГОПУ, 2004. - 96 с. - На обл. загл.: Ecological aspect in Press. - Библиогр.: с. 96.
      3. Змеева, Т. А. Методика обучения чтению англоязычной прессы экологической направленности студентов третьих курсов языковых факультетов вузов [Текст] : автореф. дис. ... канд. пед. наук : 13.00.02 / Т. А. Змеева . - М., 2005. - 20 с. : табл. - Библиогр.: с. 20.

    4. Сульженко, Н. А. Реализация экологической программы на уроках английского языка [Текст] / Н. А. Сульженко // Новые подходы к организации экологического образования в школе / Департамент образования г. Москвы. - М. : Центр "Школьная книга", 2007. - С. 121-122
    5. Луданик, С. А. Тема "Защита окружающей среды" на уроках английского языка [Текст] : [IX-XI кл.: Из опыта сред. шк. N 18 г. Ярославля] / С.А. Луданик // Иностр. яз. в шк. - 1995. - N 2. - С. 20-23. - (Практ. вопр. обучения иностр. яз.)
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    Ч.2 / Междунар. независимый экол.-политол. ун-т. - 1998. - 168,[1] с.
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    11. Экология [Текст] : практ. пособие по англ. яз. / Сост. Э.А. Ташлыкова ; [Сост. Э.А. Ташлыкова]. - Комсомольск-на-Амуре : Изд-во КГПУ, 2000. - 30 с.
    12. Андреева, Г В. Экология и охрана окружающей среды [Текст] : учеб. пособие по практике уст. и письм. речи на англ. яз. / Г.В. Андреева ; Шадр. гос. пед. ин-т, Каф. англ. яз. - Шадринск : Шадр. гос. пед. ин-т, 2001. - 52 с.

    13. Иржак, Л. И. По-английски об экологии и здоровье [Текст] : учеб. пособие / Л.И. Иржак, Г.Г. Толстова ; Сыктывкар. гос. ун-т. - Сыктывкар : Изд-во Сыктывкар. ун-та, 2001. - 109 с. - Библиогр.:108с.


    14. Лифиц, М. И. Цепочка уроков по английскому языку по теме " Экология " для учащихся 7-х классов с использованием методики опорных сигналов В.Ф.Шаталова и информационных технологий [Текст] : [из опыта учителя гимназии N 1576 Москвы] / М. И. Лифиц // ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ В СОВРЕМЕННОЙ ШКОЛЕ : журнал. - 2006. - № 2. - C. 37-46 .
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    16. Природа вокруг нас [Текст] = The nature around us : тексты для уст. ответов и письм. работ на англ. яз.: 5-11 кл. / Авт.-сост. Н.Г. Брюсова. - М. : Рус. яз.: Дрофа, 1997. - 62,[1] с. : ил. - (Английский для школьников=English for schoolchildren).

    17. Ковалева, Р Г. Природа и человек [Текст] : практ. пособие на англ. яз. / Р.Г. Ковалева, Т А Самсонова ; Забайк. гос. пед. ун-т им. Н.Г. Чернышевского. - Чита : Изд-во Забайк. гос. пед. ун-та, 1998. - 59 с. - Библиогр.:58-59с.


    18. Человек и природа [Текст] : кн. для чтения по техн. переводу с англ. яз. для учащихся 10-11 кл. гимназий, лицеев, шк. с углубл. изучением англ. яз. / Сост. Е. Курушина ; Сост. Е. Курушина. - Киров : КОГУП, 2000. - 86,[1] c. - (Теория и практика перевода).
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    20. Яшина, Марианна Евгеньевна. Экологическое воспитание старшеклассников в процессе изучения иностранного языка: диссертация ... кандидата педагогических наук : 13.00.01. - Казань, 2006. - 198 с.


    21. Яшина, Марианна Евгеньевна. Экологическое воспитание старшеклассников в процессе изучения иностранного языка : автореферат дис. ... кандидата педагогических наук : 13.00.01 / Тат. гос. гум.-пед. ун-т. - Казань, 2006. - 23 с.
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    23. Марченко, Наталья Ивановна. Иноязычные проекты как средство формирования билингвальных умений у учащихся 6-9-х классов на материале факультативных иноязычных курсов по биологии и экологии: диссертация ... кандидата педагогических наук : 13.00.02. - Москва, 2005. - 194 с. : ил. + Прил. (215с.:ил.).

    24. Вайсбурд, М.Л. Учебное общение как этап подготовки к участию в международных экологических проектах. / М. Л. Вайсбурд, С. Н. Толстиков // Иностранные языки в школе. - 2002. - № 4. - С. 3-11. - (Теоретические вопросы обучения ин. языкам)

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    Имеются экземпляры в отделах: ИНО Инв.0484055 ИНО Инв.0491010
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    30.Луговцова, С. Б. "Surgut Is Our Home" : Урок английского языка в 10 классе / С. Б. Луговцова // Образование в современной школе. – 2004. – № 6. – С. 26-31.

    31.Корролева, Л. А. Итоговое lesson по теме "Eco problems" в VII классе / Л. А. Королева // Иностранные языки в школе. – 2006. – № 2. – С. 55-58.

    32.Кузьмич, Л. А. Ecological Problem of Russia / Л. А. Кузьмич // Педагогические технологии. – 2008. – № 2. – С. 121-122.



    33. Вострикова Н. Н. Экологический компонент в типовой общеобразовательной программе по иностранным языкам на средней ступени обучения. 5–7-е классы (конспект урока, html)

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