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Psychology of inter-ethnic tension.
Inter-ethnic tension has become the main feature of the relationships between different peoples of the Russian Federation. It turned into a significant factor in the development of dialogue between the center and the republics which to a large degree determines the social and psychological climate. In this work inter-ethnic tension is studied from three different perspectives: as a social and psychological feature of relationships between ethnic groups; as a psychological and ethnocultural feature of the collective mentality of interacting ethnic groups; as a result of the activation of group defense mechanisms.
The book contains both theoretical and empirical study. More than 4600 respondents participated in this study. Its empirical ground is built by a number of social-psychological investigations and ethnosociological surveys, conducted by the author or with her participation in various periods of time:
1) Social-psychological research of the peculiarities of ethnic identity of the Ossetians, Ingush, Chechen and Russians after the aggravation of Ossetian-Ingush relationships in October 1992;
2) Ethnosociological survey of ethnic stereotypes among refugees from South Ossetia and internal regions of Georgia. Carried out in September 1991 during the period of the highest tension in relationships between Georgia and South Ossetia;
3) Ethnosociological survey among residents of Vladikavkaz (North Ossetia), May 1992, conducted five months before the outbreak of an armed conflict between Ingushetia and North Ossetia (Russian, Ossetian, Ingush respondents);
4) Social-psychological research of self-concept of Terek Cossaks, carried out in 1993 and 1995 in various republics of Northern Caucasus;
5) Social-psychological survey on urban population of North Ossetia-Alania, Tuva, Tatarstan and Sakha (Yakutia) as a part of the
project "Ethnic Identity, Nationalism and Conflict Resolution in the Russian Federation" (April 1994, August 1994, 1995);
6) Social-psychological research on leaders and activists of national movements in North Ossetia-Alania and Tuva, carried out as a part of the project "Ethnic Identity, Nationalism and Conflict Resolution in Russian Federation" in August-September 1994 (Ossetian and Tuvinian respondents);
7) Social-psychological study of Russian resettles (Cossaks) from Chechnya, held in August-September 1994 in North Ossetia-Alania;
8) Social-psychological investigation of psychological state and ethnic identity of Russian refugees from Grozny (January-February 1995);
9) Research of the attitudes of Moscovites towards "persons of Caucasian nationality" (August, 1996).
The first chapter - "Research of Inter-ethnic Tension: Towards a Theoretical Framework" - presents theoretical analysis and empirical research of inter-ethnic tensions as a social-psychological phenomenon. The system of social-psychological indicators is explained and elaborated in order to be used in monitoring and management of inter-ethnic tensions. Content and mechanisms of ethnic self-consciousness and ethnic identity as its cognitive and motivational core are considered. Ethnicity is defined as an important category of status within the structure of collective self-images of group members. Its relation with civic identity is analyzed as depending on the level of inter-ethnic tension. Transformation of ethnic identity among titular groups and Russians in Tuva, Tatarstan, North Ossetia and Sakha(Yakutia) is examined through the categories of ethnic norm, ethnic indifference, hypo- and hyper-identity which are a function of situations of inter-ethnic tension and social-demographic indicators. Analyzed is the sphere of motivation and needs as a component of ethnic identity and ethnic solidarity as psychological basis of coordination of group actions by studying the motives of ethnic affiliation, status and archetype. Inter-ethnic dispositions (stereotypes, prejudices) and psychological universal attributes serve as a means to investigate the images and limits of inter-cultural understanding. Group behavioral strategies and mechanisms of resolving inter-group problems in republics with different degree of inter-ethnic tensions are compared. In accordance with the system of the distinguished social-psychological indicators four situations of inter-ethnic tension are depicted: latent tension, frustration, conflict and crisis; mechanisms of tension escalation are revealed.
The second chapter "Underlying Assumptions and Methods of Empirical Investigation of Inter-Ethnic Relationships" deals with the
principles of designing of the program of ethnosociological research. Original social-psychological methods and techniques are proposed, created either by the author herself or in collaboration with her colleagues, in accordance with the theoretical statements, exposed in chapter 1. Original methods and techniques include: "Diagnostic Test of Relationships" that focuses on measuring the emotional-evaluative component of ethnic stereotypes; "Types of Ethnic Identity" inventory that focuses on the investigation of ethnic identity transformations through measuring the level of ethnic tolerance; "Culture-Value Differential" that provides cross-cultural analysis of value orientations and psychological universals; " Ethnoaffiliation Questionnaire" designed for the assessment of ethnoaffilative motives.