Chapter 3 "From Theory to Practice: the Case of North Caucasus" is devoted to the investigations of social-psychological problems of inter-ethnic relationships in the republics of the North Caucasus. The mountain peoples are considered as the subjects of interaction. Such specific types of mass ethnopolitical mobilization as movement for the rehabilitation of the deported peoples, islamism, solidarity and militarization are distinguished and analyzed. The common ethnicity of peoples of North Caucasus is discussed, its basis being made by the following universal attributes: traditionalism, seclusion, regimentation, sense of community, androcentrism, radicalism. A special section deals with social-psychological analysis of various ethnic groups who play different roles - participants, observers and victims - in situations of inter-ethnic tensions in the North Caucasus. Ethnic identity, ethno-cultural distance, transformation of cultural and evaluative components of ethnic stereotypes among peoples of the North Caucasus are investigated under the conditions of latent inter-ethnic tensions in early 1980s. Social-psychological determination of maintenance of inter-ethnic tensions between Ingushetia and North Ossetia is specially analyzed. Status, peculiarities of self-consciousness and character of relationships of Russian population and the Cossaks with mountain peoples are considered in a wide spectrum of situations - from frustration to crisis. Characterized are the psychological state and ethnopsychological problems of adaptation of forced migrants - resettles and refugees from South Ossetia and Chechnya, victims of situations of conflict and crisis engendered by inter-ethnic tensions.
The findings presented in the work helped to identify the main peculiarities of inter-ethnic tension. It is a multisubject, multilevel and dynamic social and psychological phenomenon capable of quick irradiation by the principles of induction and group counteraction.
Inter-ethnic tension is the psychological basis of disintegration processes between peoples. Their comprehension is necessary for developing the strategy of prevention and management of ethnic conflicts and the elaboration of state national policy. The basic theoretical concepts revealing the psychological basis of disintegration processes in a multiethnic society are the following.
Inter-ethnic tension restructures intraethnic and interethnic relationships between the peoples.Ethnic elites play the leading role in this process. Ethnic groups concentrate the efforts on creating and strengthening ethnic boundaries. As a result, the relationships between the peoples may in turn be restructured. As inter-ethnic tension increases, ethnic boundaries become more and more artificial, and the issue of cultural diversity of ethnic groups is replaced by the problem of contradictions between their demands.
Ethnicity is the main instrument, with the help of which an ethnic group manages to outline reliable and noticeable boundaries. It is a form of social identity which acquires special meaning in a multiethnic society in the periods of crisis. In this case ethnicity as a central cognitive-motivational construct of ethnic self-consciousness becomes the major basis of both intragroup and intergroup interaction, as well as the prism, through which the world is refracted. Carrying out the function of intraethnic integration, ethnicity influences the development of disintegration trends in a society as a whole.
Within a group itself a transformation of relationships occurs on the basis of intensification of solidarity, ethnopolitical and ethnocultural mobilization. Its ways are set by ethnocultural and ethnopsychological features of the group and are formed on their basis by behavioral structures of ethnicity. For example, as inter-ethnic tension increases, such qualities as seclusion and traditionalism of the Northern-Caucasian cultures "launch" an important defense mechanism of regressive character: they determine a cultural "withdrawal" backwards - in the traditional ethnocultural niche - and actualize traditional regulative mechanisms. Such qualities as communality and regimentation promote consolidation, dictate the necessity of participation and mobilization of everyone in a situation in which ethnic safety is endangered. Radicalism and androcentrism favor force as a means of resolving conflicts.
Restructuring of the system of ethnic relationships occurs through different forms of ethnopolitical mobilization. Besides forms of ethnopolitical mobilization common for the peoples of Russia in the 1990-s - striving for independence and cultural renaissance - there are specific directions of group activity. For example, in the Northern
Caucasus these are: rehabilitation of the deported peoples, islamism, militarization, solidarization along ethnic lines. They to a large degree determine the development of inter-ethnic relations and are used intensively by the local elites to maintain their grip on power. The ethnic dimension of ontological needs for identity and security generates a need for ethnicity, which has three aspects and generates three groups of motives connected to needs for ethnic belongingness, positive ethnic identity and ethnic security. As inter-ethnic tension increases, the need for ethnic identity becomes the main component of the integrated need for multiple social identity. Dissatisfaction brought about by the frustration of group needs for positive ethnic identity and ethnic security are the underlying causes of increased inter-ethnic tension.
As inter-ethnic tension rises, psychological defense mechanisms of ethnic groups as independent and integral subjects of activity become activated. The basis of their activation lies in the impairment of compensatory link between collective unconscious and consciousness. Social-perceptual mechanisms regulating intergroup perception are universal cross-cultural defense mechanisms. Among those the following should be listed: accumulation and stability of negative information, selective emotional perception, overstatement of intergroup and understatement of intragroup differences, generalization of emotions according to ethnic criterion, attribution of responsibility and guilt to other groups and external circumstances, underestimation or overestimation of differences in cultures, emotional inversion, negative projection. Besides the universal social-perceptual mechanisms specific defense mechanisms may be characteristic of separate cultures. Regression which determines a kind of return of an ethnic group to earlier stages of its development presents such a mechanism for the peoples of Northern Caucasus. At a behavioural level it is expressed, in particular, in the restoration of clan and tribal social structure and traditional models of behavior, in a surge of religious activity, in increased number of endogamous marriages.
Inter-ethnic tension is a dynamic phenomenon which tends to grow and decrease periodically. It manifests itself in the changing psychological state of interacting ethnic groups, as well as in the dynamics of ethnomobilizing processes in a society. Studying inter-ethnic tension in the range from hidden background tension to open aggression and violence in relationships between the peoples resulted in identifying four phases: latency, frustration, conflict and crisis. The transition to the next phase each time signifies reaching certain critical
points, the evaluation of which is essential for diagnosing the level of inter-ethnic tension and the prevention of its further growth. As inter-ethnic tension escalates from the stage of latent tension to that of frustration and then to conflict and crisis, defense psychological mechanisms take on their extreme forms.
At the psychological level the growth of inter-ethnic tension and the activation of ethnomobilizing processes manifest themselves in: (a) increasing dissatisfaction of group needs for positive ethnic identity and ethnic security; (b) rising status of ethnicity in the structure of a group social identity, (c) ethnic self-consciousness being transformed into hyperethnicity, negative images crystallizing, (d) growing number of ethnically intolerant people; (e) narrowing distance between ethnic images and real actions. These are the basic parameters of the level of inter-ethnic tension, which reach their own critical values depending on the phase of inter-ethnic tension.
On the basis of comparison of the above listed parameters in various cases of inter-ethnic tension the critical points of its transition from one phase to another were identified empirically. The phase of frustration is followed by that of conflict at which manifestations of aggression and violence in the relationships between the peoples are possible. In this connection the following empirical results revealing social and psychological bases of the transition between inter-ethnic tension and violent conflicts were obtained.
As a result of the frustration of ethnic needs, first, ethnoaffiliative, status and archetypic motives in most of ethnic group representatives become more pronounced. Second, the level of mass neurotization and frustration rises, the sources of which being often found in other ethnic groups. The more pronounced these motives are and the less is the level of mass neurotization and frustration, the higher are the indexes of intragroup solidarity which provide an important psychological basis of ethnomobilizing processes. Their increase among the titular nations as compared to the Russian population of the republics reflects the main vector of development of inter-ethnic tension: growing intensity of ethnomobilizing processes in the republics of the Russian Federation on the part of the titular nations. In such a category of forced migrants as refugees frustration of the need for ethnic identity combined with posttraumatic stress are the main reasons of the maladjustment characteristic of them. Inthe structure of social identity ethnic belongingness comes next after the categories of private life (family, sex, profession, age) - the bases of adjustment and survival in the periods of social crises. In the 1990s the notion "the Soviet
person", once the main ideological category, was replaced by that of ethnicity. For the titular nations the rising status of ethnicity presents a compensation for the split civil identity which lost its former importance. The significance of ethnicity tends to grow in accordance with the growing striving for independence and gets stronger in the process of confrontation with other peoples. Rising status of ethnicity in the structure of group social identity leads to growing ethnomobilization of consciousness.
The basis of the change of ethnic identity for hyperethnicity and the crystallization of negative images is the transformation of ethnic stereotypes into biases and prejudices, decrease in the adequacy of perception, growing psychological and cultural distance, decrease of common semantic zones of cross-cultural understanding, increasing divergence between value systems, orientations and universal psychological concepts, increased intensity of hyperethnic or xenophobic reactions. All this determines the decrease of the level of ethnic tolerance of the nations not only with respect to the confronting group, but also towards neutral groups or even allies.
Social and psychological research in the republics of Russia (Tatarstan, North Ossetia-Alania, Sakha (Yakutia) and uva), carried out in 1994-1995, showed that even during the outbursts of ethnicity pronounced hyperethnic and xenophobic attitudes turned out to be characteristic of only a small number of the respondents. Among the Russian inhabitants of these republics the number of such persons varied from 1% to 5 %, whereas among the titular nations they ranged from 3% up to 9%. Nevertheless, these data suggest that the share of people with pronounced hyperethnic attitudes is not so negligible as to be ignored at all.
Lower hyperethnicity among Russians shows that the ethnic belongingness is not so important for them as it is for the titular groups. On the whole Russians in the republics aspire first of all to maintain social and professional status, firmly established division of spheres of employment, and, consequently, tend to demonstrate a higher degree of ethnic tolerance. As a result, on the average there are 1.5 less ethnically intolerant individuals among Russians than among the titular nationalities of the republics. However, this can be explained not so much by tolerance as a quality of the national character type, but rather by the dictates of social conditions. Tolerance acts as a defense mechanism, when Russians have to try to seek understanding of the titular nations concerns for the purpose of adjustment. High intensity of xenophobic reactions is demonstrated with respect to
"newcomers" and, first of all, to forced migrants - refugees and resettles. It is characteristic, in particular, for Northern Ossetia-Alania. It is quite pronounced in Moscow, where about half of all forced migrants tend to settle down. Our studies have shown, that negative ethnic characteristics are ascribed to an object of xenophobia, even if he is of the same ethnicity as the respondents. For instance, Russian residents of Moscow when characterising Russian refugees from Grozny, often referred to them as "persons of Caucasian nationality" who have been the first ones on the scale of ethnic negativism over the past four years.
Ethnically intolerant people are characterized by the following peculiarities: (a) ethnicity plays an important status role in the structure of social identity; (b) in the process of interethnic perception the differences became more important, images of ones own and other ethnic groups are sharply differentiated; (c) high emotional involvement into the situations of inter-ethnic contact; (d) the need of ethnic identity is pronounced; (e) aspiration to part from "others", especially in the sphere of informal relations; (f) tendency for the rivalry in the interpersonal relations; (g) radicalism of the consciousness that expresses specifically in approving violence as a form of social control in ethnic conflicts and justification of human sacrifices for the sake of sovereignty; (h) preference of aggression as a way of managing conflict situation.
The case of protracted inter-ethnic tension and the peoples striving for independence combined with having had ones own statehood in the past and demographic dominance account for a rather high probability of aggressive or violent actions against other groups. Displaying negative attitudes towards other ethnic groups in the form of aggressive or violent actions is determined by various factors, but not the cultural predisposition. In our findings significant differences in the level of aggressiveness were observed not between different cultures, but between men and women and between some age groups.
Mutual erroneous inteipretations of the parties motives and actions appear. Under inter-ethnic tension growth these interpretations are easily shaped from outside by means of nationalist rhetoric and then become serious barriers on the way of managing ethnic disagreements and conflicts. Protracted inter-ethnic tension amplifies their confrontational attitudes and determines their specific qualities. For instance, the basis of Ossetians and Ingushs mutual perceptions was the destruction of the common level of ethnicity as the basis of "Caucasian" kinship, development of confrontation collective images of the allies and enemies, hypertrophy of social justice sentiment, the
dominance of competing strategy of interaction, decreased level of mutual trust, cultivation of fear, emerging ideas about cultural, psychological and religious incompatibility. The transformation of confrontation perceptions is an essential part of the process of working out the relationships between the peoples.
Theoretical and empirical results of the study determine its applied importance. The practical conclusions can be summarized as following:
The programs and the methods of ethnopsychological research represent a specialized social and psychological instrument of monitoring the level of inter-ethnic tension and the character of ethnomobilization processes. It serves as the potential basis not only for current assessment of ethnic attitudes and identifying the hotbeds of inter-ethnic tension, but also for forecasting the rates of its increase and prevalence, as well as predicting ethnic migrations.
The results of the study form a systematic scholarly database on the Northern Caucasus and some other regions of Russia. The findings are of comparative cross-cultural character, which makes them particularly relevant when elaborating regional policy and strategy of national policy in the Russian Federation.
The empirical and applied results of the study represent a psychological component of the complex work on developing integration trends in the society. In this case the main task of an ethnopsychologist lies in strengthening mutual understanding between the peoples, on the basis of which the conflicting parties may change their positions. The mechanisms of interethnic perception considered above, peculiarities of motivation and needs, the principles of the assessment of ethnic images, interrelations between attitudes and group behavior can become an effective academic basis for psychological correction with the purposes of developing mutual understanding between the peoples.
Theoretical and empirical results of the study reveal deep psychological mechanisms and regularities of transformation of ethnic attitudes in the critical periods of development. They can be used as a basis for ethnotherapy both on high political level by means of designing social attitudes with the purpose of preventing the development of disintegration trends in the society, and in practical work of the public figures, professional politicians, social workers, psychologists who work in ethnic conflicts management and look for the ways on their resolution, rehabilitation of refugees and forced migrants.
Well-timed and qualified work in this direction may prove to be highly effective, for in Russian Federation broad psychological
opportunities for intercultural integration have been maintained. The majority of the population of Russia are the people we may call mediators (people opened to other cultures). It can be concluded that the striving for interethnic cooperation is the key strategy of behavior in relationships among the different ethnic group in Russia.This strategy expresses itself in low popularity of extremism, in positive evaluation of previous experience in ethnic interaction, willingness for cooperation on interpersonal level, importance of Republican citizenship for Russians and the citizenship of the Russian Federation for title nations.
Extensive common semantic zones between different ethnic groups in Russiado exist, making aprincipal base of intercultural understanding. Coinciding features in the peoples self-perceptions is a positive phenomenon. This seems to be a good psychological basis for managing ethnic relations in new Russia. It also presents an encouraging basis for effective "ethnotherapy" of both political, social and psychological activity aimed at the development of integration trends in the society. Ethnotheurapeutic activity in this connotation means both prevention and "treatment" of nationalistic manifestations, ethnophobias and ethnic intolerance at different levels of public activity - from a psychologist rendering specific psychotherapeutic help to a refugee from a zone of ethnic conflict up to the President of the country.
Psychological researches show that any measures within the framework of such activity should be based on the comprehension of human aspirations and psychological peculiarities. The main attention in the process of ethnotherapeutic activity should be given:
- to the issues of parity of ethnic and social groups statuses and evaluations of the degree of the historical fairness in their interrelations;
- to meeting ethnosocial needs based on the striving to positive ethnic identity;
- to the problem of awareness and understanding of the needs and interests of another party;
- to strengthening the psychological feeling of intercultural affinity and expanding common semantic intercultural zones;
- to forming adequate and positive images of each other,
- to getting rid of deep fears and strengthening mutual trust.
Солдатова Галина Уртанбековна – старший научный сотрудник Института этнологии и антропологии РАН, ведущий специалист в области психологии межэтнических отношений, этнических конфликтов и вынужденной миграции. Она принимала участие в качестве этнопсихолога в ряде крупных междисциплинарных научно-исследовательских проектов. В 1985 г. она защитила первую в стране кандидатскую диссертацию по соци- f альной этнопсихологии. Г.У.Солдатова – автор более 60 научных работ, 17 из которых опубликовано за рубежом, соавтор монографии "Демократизация и образы национализма в Российской федерации начала 90-х гг." (М.: Мысль, 1996).
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