Хайнц Хекхаузен Психология мотивации достижения


Глава 13. Заключительные замечания



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Глава 13. Заключительные замечания

Количественное измерение мотивации достижения посредством метода ТАТ не переродилось в типологию. Напротив, оно объединило грандиозную сеть исследований. Возможно, о мотивации достижения мы знаем сегодня больше, чем о других мотивах человеческого поведения, хотя Ах и Левин начали свои исследования в этой области только около четырех десятилетий назад.

Данное изложение не оканчивается разделительной чертой, как это принято при завершении одной из глав учебника по психологии. Сопоставимые друг с другом феномены в различных исследовательских областях предполагают множество пересечений на теоретическом уровне. Специалисты могут справедливо усомниться в целесообразности этого, поскольку затрагиваются их области интересов, однако они не могут отрицать возможности интеграции результатов исследований для заложения основы теории мотивации. С этой точки зрения психометрика должна только сожалеть об упущенных возможностях использования тестовых характеристик метода ТАТ. Он не отвечает требованиям хорошего теста для индивидуальной диагностики и, возможно, никогда не будет им отвечать. Его чувствительность к ситуационным переменным, к счастью, не позволяет ему быть включенным в категорию диагностических тестов. Его недостатки, однако, обернулись достоинствами уже в самых первых исследованиях. Они привели к неожиданным результатам и стимулировали экспериментаторов продолжать поиски. Впоследствии это привело к ясному пониманию того, сколь тесно связана мотивация с взаимодействием устойчивых и ситуационных факторов.

Бесплодность большинства современных методологических подходов больше не вызывает сомнений. Анализ мотивации достижений в настоящее время охватил весь мир, а не только Соединенные Штаты; она исследуется в Японии, Австралии, Бразилии, Германии, Англии, Италии и Голландии. Все еще кажется весьма вероятным, что результаты ближайшего будущего останутся достойными вложенного труда. Более того, эта область исследований всегда благодатна для тех, кто склонен сомневаться в результатах, полученных коллегами. Для достижения данной цели нам стоит только объединить неявный макет эксперимента со слегка измененным методом измерения, и нам обеспечен полный провал в контрольном эксперименте. "Игра" с интерпретацией все еще предоставляет столько возможностей, что и в ней нельзя быть уверенным. Будущим исследованиям еще только предстоит отсекать лишние.



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