М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова



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G – Technology for You

Do you feel as if everyone is using a computer except you? Join in this five-day course and learn the basics. You’ll learn how to store your personal files, send emails and use simple programmes to write and print letters. In the afternoons you will have the choice of either learning how to make Birthday Cards and other designs on a computer, or you can join our ‘Basic computers for Work’ class.


H – Wildlife Photographer

Travel to a different wild place every week and learn how to take photographs of animals, plants and scenery. Our expert teachers will advise you how to take the best pictures. This course will run for six weeks on Saturdays. Students should already have a good understanding of photography and their own equipment. The class is suitable for everyone, as there is very little walking involved.


2. Decide which course would be the most suitable for the each person. Select the best course.

Конец формы


1. Harriet is 71, and is interested in painting and drawing. She would like to go somewhere in the summer where she can learn new tips and paint attractive scenery.



2. Belinda works for a large Art Company and she feels she needs to improve her computer skills. She already has a basic understanding of some common computer programmes, but she wants to learn how to organize her work and store information.


    • A – Form and Colour

    • B – Practice makes Perfect

    • C – Armchair Explorer

    • D – Art Starter

    • E – Wild Design

    • F – Explore Your Imagination

    • G – Technology for You



3. Jenny is interested in a career design, and wants to learn how to create art and change photographs using special computer programmes. She wants a course that will fit into her normal university day.


    • A – Form and Colour

    • B – Practice makes Perfect

    • C – Armchair Explorer

    • D – Art Starter

    • E – Wild Design

    • F – Explore Your Imagination

    • G – Technology for You

Конец формы
4. George is unable to travel because he has difficulty walking, but he wants to learn more about wildlife and scenery in different parts of the world.


    • A – Form and Colour

    • B – Practice makes Perfect

    • C – Armchair Explorer

    • D – Art Starter

    • E – Wild Design

    • F – Explore Your Imagination

    • G – Technology for You


5. Chris wants a change in career, so he’s looking for a full-time course in which he can learn everything there is to know about photography and how to use computers to change and sell his work.


    • A – Form and Colour

    • B – Practice makes Perfect

    • C – Armchair Explorer

    • D – Art Starter

    • E – Wild Design

    • F – Explore Your Imagination

    • G – Technology for You



BE WEB-WISE
Protect your computer, by all means, but don't forget to protect yourself, advises web safety expert, Amanda Knox.
1. Read an article about online safety.
We're always being urged to stay safe online. But in an era where the internet is part of our everyday lives – for work, fun, study, shopping, even managing finances – it's not always easy to spot the dangers. Web safety expert, Amanda Knox, explores some of the issues lurking in cyberspace.

Her first piece of advice is to install software and a firewall to protect your computer from viruses, hackers and criminals who want to steal your data or financial information. "Think of these as your first line of defence," says Amanda.

So much for protecting yourself against intruders, but what about other problems? Say you've accidentally deleted an important file or you've been at the mercy of a natural disaster. Katy Marsh runs an online photography business from home and when a fire destroyed part of her house it could easily have spelled ruin for her business too. "Luckily I keep a regular back-up of my data so it wasn't a catastrophe." Amanda advises that while back-ups are good to have we must ensure we protect our computers to start with.

Whilst most of us are aware of the need to protect our computers, it seems we're more lax when it comes to looking out for ourselves, at least according to a recent web awareness survey. Web safety specialists say better personal awareness is needed and this is due in part to the rise of 'Social Networking' sites like 'Bebo', 'MySpace' and 'Facebook', which allow us to connect with people around the world with similar interests and professional backgrounds. Chris Simpson, a computer programmer, learnt the hard way. "I joined a free online networking group in the hope of making some professional contacts to help me find a new job. After a month, one of my online contacts invited me to take out a subscription to a club that promised access to a network of job recruiters. It turned out to be a waste of money. I ended up a laughing stock with my mates – they couldn't believe that someone in my job could get taken in so easily." No wonder then that Amanda warns, "It's easy to get complacent and let our guard down when we meet someone with the same interests online."

This brings us to other potential pitfalls. Are the people you meet online who they really claim to be? Can you be sure the person you're chatting with is in fact a 22-year-old Maths undergraduate from London and not someone merely masquerading as a student to win your trust? Khaled, a postgrad from Manchester University, quickly realised that it was unwise of him to post his phone number and email address in the public forum of an online academic discussion group. He was soon bombarded with unwanted emails and nuisance phone calls. Yet, it's astonishing how many highly educated people do this without considering the consequences that anyone in the world could use the information to make (unwanted) contact.

When networking and joining online communities it's better to be cautious about the amount of personal information you share. For example, it isn't always necessary to use your real name as a username when registering for a service. You could instead use a pseudonym, or a name that doesn't give away your real identity to other users. And is it really important to tell the world details about your school, college or any local clubs you're a member of? Sometimes it pays to be a little vague and simply say something like 'I'm studying at college in Madrid at the moment and I'm a member of a local tennis club'.

If you do experience problems from another user be prepared to report them for misusing the service. You'll be doing other users a favour too. And if all else fails, check to see if it is easy to delete your account and leave the service if you choose to and that you have the option to delete all your details.

A general rule of thumb is not to post any information about yourself that you would not be happy for the world to know – not just now but in years to come. This includes photographs of yourself, particularly embarrassing shots of you at that party which you may later regret! It's not always easy to remove information after it's been posted so you – not to mention your future employer – may have an unpleasant surprise a few years down the line.


2. Choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.
1. In the second paragraph the phrase “first line of defence” suggests something


  1. is the only option.

  2. offers protection.

  3. is an instruction.

  4. shows weakness.


2. The effect of the fire was


  1. worse for Katy’s business than her home.

  2. to ruin Katy’s business.

  3. not as serious for Katy’s business as it could have been.

  4. to make Katy start to back up her data.


3. According to the web awareness survey, our attitude to our personal safety is rather


  1. relaxed.

  2. concerned.

  3. positive.

  4. uncertain.


4. Chris first joined the networking group


  1. because it promised him a job.

  2. in order to make friends and have fun.

  3. to assist him in a job search.

  4. because it didn’t cost him anything.


5. Regarding Khaled’s experience, the writer is surprised that


  1. people telephone complete strangers.

  2. people don’t think of the results of their actions online.

  3. university students take part in online discussions.

  4. people sent emails to Khaled without asking permission.




  1. What tip does the writer give for joining an online community?




  1. Always use a false name.

  2. Make sure you’re properly registered.

  3. Limit the information you give to others.

  4. Tell other users where you’re studying.




  1. The writer says that you should report troublesome users




  1. because other people will benefit.

  2. so you can stop using the service.

  3. only if nothing else works.

  4. if you want to delete your own details.




  1. In the final paragraph, the writer advises people




  1. not to put photos online.

  2. to apply for a job online.

  3. not to have any personal information online.

  4. to consider what may cause problems in the future.

CAREER SUCCESS IN THE ARTS
John Prince, famous dancer and choreographer, gives advice on how to succeed in a career in the arts.
1. Read a magazine article about John Prince, a dancer, dance teacher and choreographer. Seven sentences have been removed from the article.
I asked John how he got started and what requirements there are. "Well, to be a professional dancer it's useful to have had acting lessons or some background in drama. If you want to succeed in musical theatre you have to have a good singing voice as well. When you approach an agent you should take a portfolio with your CV, your statistics sheet and some good photos and reviews of past performances. You'll need dance clothes, ballet shoes, tap shoes, and even roller skates depending on what kind of show you are going to go for."

1. ___________________________________________________________________

"Of course, you need to be extremely fit if you want to be a professional dancer. I dance or move about for about six hours a day. There are great health benefits to being a dancer. I can eat a lot of pasta without gaining weight because dancing increases your metabolism so much."



2. ___________________________________________________________________

John has a very busy schedule in the next few months. He took time out to speak to me today from the making of a pop video to promote N-ergy's latest record. "I choreographed the dance routine for the boys and they only had 2 days in which to learn it! I am going to be working on a video for another well known band - but that's top secret. Next month I'll be touring Spain in a production of a musical that was written by a friend of mine, Michaela Evans.



3.___________________________________________________________________

As for the future, I've come to realise that I would never be content to be just a chorus dancer - I'm too much of an individual for that. Like all artists I'd love to become a household name by writing and choreographing my own musicals."

John was born in Jamaica to a Jamaican father and a Scottish mother but the family emigrated to England 20 years ago. "I have a little sister I adore, who is also training to be a dancer." How does it feel to have someone else following in your footsteps?

4.___________________________________________________________________

Has he much more to learn, I wondered. "I've spent an incredible amount of my life training to get where I am. I went to college for two years in England, I trained for six months in Paris and about eight months in America. But you never really stop training or learning your art."



5.___________________________________________________________________

So, would you say it's been plain sailing? "I feel I've been lucky to a degree; many people hit problems breaking into the arts. It can be a vicious circle really. You can't become a member of Equity, which is the actors' and dancers' union, without good contracts, and you can't get good contracts without being a member of Equity. My advice to people who want to get into the arts would be to go out into the world, and try everything else first.



6.___________________________________________________________________

What has a dance career done for you as a person? "Thanks to dancing, I've visited and performed in 23 countries so far. This has opened my eyes to the world, and I've been able to understand issues like racism and inequality from a wider perspective.



7.___________________________________________________________________

"So all in all I'm really happy to be a dancer!"


2. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list A – H for each part (1 – 7) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
A. It's fine, but I try not to give out too much advice as it gets irritating!

B. And if nothing you like comes out of it, then come back and be an actor or dancer.

C. Without a strict daily timetable like this you find yourself wasting too much time.

D. After that it's back to England to start a new term of dance classes.

E. Hopefully this has enabled me to become a better and more tolerant person as a result.

F. When it comes to coping with stress, I find that exercise helps me to cope with my problems, so I stay in good shape mentally as well.

G. Like any profession where you're always travelling, you tend to acquire something new almost every day.

H. Being fully equipped with all this stuff beforehand makes it easier when you go for auditions.
Level B 2

THIS MONTH’S LETTERS

1. Read a selection of letters from a problem page in an International English Language magazine.
A

I study English for 6 hours per week in secondary school. For 1 hour each week we have conversation classes with a native speaker of English where we talk about topics such as drugs, politics and culture. I know it's a really good opportunity to practise my spoken English, but I never make a contribution to the discussion. It's not that I don't have an opinion, or that I'm shy, but more that I don't have the vocabulary to express my views. I feel really frustrated at the end of the lesson. Nobody else in the group seems to have the same problem.



Katalin
B

I'm a 24-year-old business student from Malaysia and I've been attending English classes at night school for the past 5 years. Up to now I've considered myself to be a good student. Last month I went to Britain to visit my relatives over there and it was awful. People found my pronunciation difficult to follow and I couldn't understand them either. What went wrong? My English teacher is very good and I always score the highest in grammar tests.



Fazlinda
C

I'm writing to ask your opinion on a matter which is really annoying me. My English teacher never corrects my mistakes when I am speaking. Isn't that her job? How am I going to improve otherwise? Also she's always telling me that now I'm an advanced student, I should forget all the rules of grammar that I learnt when I was younger.



Gunther
D

Can you help me? I really want to speak English the right way, with the correct accent. Do you have any good ideas? I have a particular problem with sounds like 's'. I plan to work in the UK in the future and nobody will take me seriously if my English pronunciation is anything short of excellent.



Jose

E

I am working as an au pair in London looking after 2 small children. I love my job but the way that English people speak is a little puzzling. For example, I often hear them say things like 'more friendlier', whereas I thought it should be 'more friendly'. It also seems to be common for them to say 'we was' instead of 'we were'. Can you explain this? Would it be impolite of me to correct them?



Lana
F

I am an intermediate student of English (I have been studying it for 3 years). I'm quite good at reading and writing but listening is very difficult for me. My teacher suggested that I listen to the BBC World Service every day in order to improve my listening. The problem is that it's hard for me to understand every word. Do you have any ideas about how to make listening to the radio less difficult? I like listening to the news and knowing what's going on in the world.



Yuki
G

I have studied English for 5 years at school but for the past 6 months I have been doing self-study using the Internet and books to improve. There are lots of materials to choose but I'm not sure what is best for me and how I should use them. I really would like to take the FCE examination but don't know how to study on my own. Should I take a course in my local school – which is a little expensive for me now – or is it possible to prepare for the exam doing self-study?



Paula
H

Could you please give me some advice on a problem I have at the moment with my English studies. I decided to go to the UK to improve my English but the college I am studying in at present is full of people from my own country. Although the teachers tell us we should only try to speak in English with each other, it is very difficult to do this, especially in our free time when we go out together. I am worried that my speaking will not improve.



Maria
2. Choose from the people (A – H). Write the letter next to each extract on the right. The people may be chosen more than once.



Which person


1. would appear not to have an English teacher?




2. doesn't like studying with people from their own country?




3. has a job in the UK?





4. enjoys keeping up with current affairs?





5. feels that the teacher isn't doing their job properly?




6. uses English speaking radio stations to practise English?




7. had a shock when they visited Britain?





8. wants to avoid speaking their own language?




9. wants to speak English like a native speaker?




10. feels they are the only person with their difficulty?




11. wonders whether it is rude to correct people when they make mistakes?




12. worries that their English will cause them problems at work?




13. had difficulty being understood when they spoke?




14. is thinking about taking an English exam?




15. finds it difficult to take part in conversations?




THE CREATORS OF GRAMMAR

1. Read the text about the development of language and grammar.

No student of a foreign language needs to be told that grammar is complex. By changing word sequences and by adding a range of auxiliary verbs and suffixes, we are able to communicate tiny variations in meaning. We can turn a statement into a question, state whether an action has taken place or is soon to take place, and perform many other word tricks to convey subtle differences in meaning. Nor is this complexity inherent to the English language. All languages, even those of so-called 'primitive' tribes have clever grammatical components. The Cherokee pronoun system, for example, can distinguish between 'you and I', 'several other people and I' and 'you, another person and I'. In English, all these meanings are summed up in the one, crude pronoun 'we'. Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how widespread it is. So the question which has baffled many linguists is – who created grammar?

At first, it would appear that this question is impossible to answer. To find out how grammar is created, someone needs to be present at the time of a language's creation, documenting its emergence. Many historical linguists are able to trace modern complex languages back to earlier languages, but in order to answer the question of how complex languages are actually formed, the researcher needs to observe how languages are started from scratch. Amazingly, however, this is possible.

Some of the most recent languages evolved due to the Atlantic slave trade. At that time, slaves from a number of different ethnicities were forced to work together under colonizer's rule. Since they had no opportunity to learn each other's languages, they developed a make-shift language called a pidgin. Pidgins are strings of words copied from the language of the landowner. They have little in the way of grammar, and in many cases it is difficult for a listener to deduce when an event happened, and who did what to whom. [A] Speakers need to use circumlocution in order to make their meaning understood. [B] Interestingly, however, all it takes for a pidgin to become a complex language is for a group of children to be exposed to it at the time when they learn their mother tongue. [C] Slave children did not simply copy the strings of words uttered by their elders, they adapted their words to create a new, expressive language. [D] Complex grammar systems which emerge from pidgins are termed creoles, and they are invented by children.

Further evidence of this can be seen in studying sign languages for the deaf. Sign languages are not simply a series of gestures; they utilise the same grammatical machinery that is found in spoken languages. Moreover, there are many different languages used worldwide. The creation of one such language was documented quite recently in Nicaragua. Previously, all deaf people were isolated from each other, but in 1979 a new government introduced schools for the deaf. Although children were taught speech and lip reading in the classroom, in the playgrounds they began to invent their own sign system, using the gestures that they used at home. It was basically a pidgin. Each child used the signs differently, and there was no consistent grammar. However, children who joined the school later, when this inventive sign system was already around, developed a quite different sign language. Although it was based on the signs of the older children, the younger children's language was more fluid and compact, and it utilised a large range of grammatical devices to clarify meaning. What is more, all the children used the signs in the same way. A new creole was born.

Some linguists believe that many of the world's most established languages were creoles at first. The English past tense –ed ending may have evolved from the verb 'do'. 'It ended' may once have been 'It end-did'. Therefore it would appear that even the most widespread languages were partly created by children. Children appear to have innate grammatical machinery in their brains, which springs to life when they are first trying to make sense of the world around them. Their minds can serve to create logical, complex structures, even when there is no grammar present for them to copy.


2. Choose the correct answer.
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