М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова

In paragraph 1, why does the writer include information about the Cherokee language?

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1. In paragraph 1, why does the writer include information about the Cherokee language?

a. To show how simple, traditional cultures can have complicated grammar structures.

b. To show how English grammar differs from Cherokee grammar.

c. To prove that complex grammar structures were invented by the Cherokees.

d. To demonstrate how difficult it is to learn the Cherokee language.
2. What can be inferred about the slaves' pidgin language?

a. It contained complex grammar.

b. It was based on many different languages.

c. It was difficult to understand, even among slaves.

d. It was created by the land-owners.
3. All the following sentences about Nicaraguan sign language are true EXCEPT:

a. The language has been created since 1979.

b. The language is based on speech and lip reading.

c. The language incorporates signs which children used at home.

d. The language was perfected by younger children.
4. In paragraph 3, where can the following sentence be placed?

It included standardised word orders and grammatical markers that existed in neither the pidgin language, nor the language of the colonizers.




5. ‘From scratch’ in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to:

a. from the very beginning.

b. in simple cultures.

c. by copying something else.

d. by using written information.
6. ‘Make-shift’ in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to:

a. complicated and expressive.

b. simple and temporary.

c. extensive and diverse.

d. private and personal.
7. Which sentence is closest in meaning to this sentence?

Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how widespread it is.

a. All languages, whether they are spoken by a few people or a lot of people, contain grammar.

b. Some languages include a lot of grammar, whereas other languages contain a little.

c. Languages which contain a lot of grammar are more common that languages that contain a little.

d. The grammar of all languages is the same, no matter where the languages evolved.
8. All of the following are features of the new Nicaraguan sign language EXCEPT:

a. All children used the same gestures to show meaning.

b. The meaning was clearer than the previous sign language.

c. The hand movements were smoother and smaller.

d. New gestures were created for everyday objects and activities.
9. Which idea is presented in the final paragraph?

a. English was probably once a creole.

b. The English past tense system is inaccurate.

c. Linguists have proven that English was created by children.

d. Children say English past tenses differently from adults.
10. Look at the word ‘consistent’ in paragraph 4. This word could best be replaced by which of the following?

a. natural

b. predictable

c. imaginable

d. uniform

3. Which THREE ideas best sum up the main ideas of the text?

a. Some children are better at grammar than others.

b. Children have the mental capacity to create complex languages.

c. Children are better at learning grammar than adults.

d. Children prefer to invent their own grammar rules than to copy existing rules.

e. Children do not only learn grammar by copying other people.

f. All creole languages were perfected by children.

1. Read the article written by professional funny man David Mitchell where he discusses whether young people should still be taking gap years. Seven sentences have been removed from the article.

The race is on for A-level students to grab university places before the fee cap is lifted (the maximum amount universities can charge students). Pre-Christmas applications reached a record high as candidates scrambled for the last scraps of cheap education.

1. _______________________________________________________. This, in turn, will create a gap for the rest of the world.

There'll be no enthusiastic teenagers to build schools in Mozambique and there are going to be a lot of unfound selves slouching around the Indian subcontinent waiting for their backpacking owners.

2. _____________________________________________________________. For one generation at least, our student population won't be contaminated by a vociferous minority who think they've seen the world and have the beaded bracelets and ethnic ponchos to prove it. And they haven't seen the world – they've seen Peru. The world's not like Peru – not the bit that Britons tend to inhabit when they graduate. It's more like Reading.

This year's nervous and bookish school-leavers, timorously arranging their mugs and kettle, and applying new Blu-Tack to their cherished "Kings and Queens of England" posters in unwelcoming university halls, won't be intimidated by the bloke from the room next door reminiscing about snake bites, snakebite and drug experimentation.

Before you automatically lump me in with the fearful kettle arrangers, let me say that I took a gap year.

3. ____________________________________________. Secretly, I knew I was boring. I pretended to be keen on lots of clubs and societies so I had something to write on my UCCA form, but my private shame was the knowledge that all I really wanted to do was stay indoors and watch television.

4. ______________________________________________________________. It also delayed the terrors of university for a whole year, the first few months of which, as a reward for the stresses of A-levels, would undoubtedly be spent watching television.

As the summer holidays wore on, the pressure from my parents to find something exciting to do with this opportunity, and their disappointment at my defensive apathy, intensified.

5. ______________________________________________________. Gap-year-taking contemporaries, particularly as described by their parents to mine, seemed desperate to get out there, see stuff, help people.

I glumly went InterRailing. I toured Europe's most beautiful cities as part of a bickering group of frightened nerds. I coped with youth hostels and handwashing underwear. I slept on trains. I went round art galleries and museums.

6. __________________________________________________________________.

All in all, my year off was so stressful that being back on felt relaxing and I suppose I approached university with more confidence as a result – which puts me in the same category as all the dope-smoking orphanage builders, though I'm loath to admit it.But times have changed.

7. ___________________________________________.

In an educational environment where students must borrow heavily to join an overpopulated graduate workforce, the less they know of the unreal world across the glittering sea, the less cheated they'll feel.

2. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list A – H for each part (1 – 7) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A. It was the last stage of my tentative teenage quest not to be a boring person – or at least to deceive the world into thinking I wasn't.

B. I was hugely intimidated by my peers' apparent fearlessness.

C. Only the super-rich will be planning gap years at the moment.

D. As it turned out, I did see the world in my gap year, or the world that most graduates inhabit, as I spent nine months of it sitting at a desk in an office.

E. The country can't afford all that non-vocational time-wasting.

F. For Britain, this could be the one good outcome from the whole tuition fees betrayal.

G. But a gap year was like a certification of interestingness, of roundedness – it showed that you were embracing life's challenges, not festering in a clammy fug of spot cream and self-doubt.

H. There was not a moment when I didn't want to go home.


Level A 2

1. Read this letter from Milena to her pen-pal, Elena.

Dear Elena,

Thank you for the letter you sent me last week. I'm very happy to hear that you and Francesco are well and that your exam results were so good. Well done! I know you studied hard and you deserve your success.

Mine are next week so at the moment I'm studying a lot. I'm really nervous about them because, if you remember, I was ill for a couple of months at the end of the year and so I missed a lot of lessons. When they finish I would like to come and visit you for a few days, if that's OK with your mom and dad.

Do you remember I told you about my friend Amanda from Scotland? She's going to come here next month and is going to stay for two weeks. I'd like you to come too so you can meet her and we can all go out together. What do you think? We can practice our English!

I remember last year we had such a good time. The beaches near your house are wonderful and I really enjoyed meeting your friends (especially Roberto! Is he still single?) I can't remember the name of the disco next to the train station but I'd like to go there again – it was fun.

Oh, guess what! Jason broke his arm last weekend! He went to the skateboard park with his friends from school and fell down some steps (he doesn't know how to skateboard!) He's got a plaster cast and he's going to have it for at least six weeks. He's such an idiot!

My mom's calling me for lunch so I'll finish this letter now. Say hello to your family and don't forget to congratulate Francesco for me.

Lots of love

Milena x x

PS. Say Hi to Roberto too!

2. There are six paragraphs in the letter. Match each paragraph to a subject by writing the correct letter (A – F) for what it talks about.

A. Memories D. Me

B. Well done! E. News

C. Plans F. Bye!

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