Robert Capa is a name that has for many years been synonymous with war photography.
Born in Hungary in 1913 as Friedmann Endre Erno, Capa was forced to leave his native country after his involvement in anti government protests. Capa had originally wanted to become a writer, but after his arrival in Berlin had first found work as a photographer. He later left Germany and moved to France due to the rise in Nazism. He tried to find work as a freelance journalist and it was here that he changed his name to Robert Capa, mainly because he thought it would sound more American.
In 1936, after the breakout of the Spanish Civil war, Capa went to Spain and it was here over the next three years that he built his reputation as a war photographer. It was here too in 1936 that he took one of his most famous pictures, The Death of aLoyalist Soldier.One of Capa’s most famous quotes was “if your pictures aren’t god enough, you’re not close enough”. And he took his attitude of getting close to the action to an extreme. His photograph, The Death of a Loyalist Soldier is a prime example of this as Capa captures the very moment the soldier falls. However, many have questioned the authenticity of this photograph, claiming that it was staged.
When World War II broke out, Capa was in New York, but he was soon back in Europe covering the war for Life magazine. Some of his most famous work was created on 6th June 1944 when he swam ashore with the first assault on Omaha Beach in the D-Day invasion of Normandy. Capa, armed only with two cameras, took more than one hundred photographs in the first hour of the landing, but a mistake in the darkroom during the drying of the film destroyed all but eight frames. It was the images from these frames however that inspired the visual style of Steven Spielberg’s Oscar winning movie “Saving Private Ryan”. When Life magazine published the photographs, they claimed that they were slightly out of focus, and Capa later used this as the title of his autobiographical account of war.
Capa’s private life was no less dramatic. He was friend to many of Hollywood’s directors, actors and actresses. In 1943 he fell in love with the wife of actor John Austin. His affair with her lasted until the end of the war and became the subject of his war memoirs. He was at one time lover to actress Ingrid Bergman. Their relationship finally ended in 1946 when he refused to settle in Hollywood and went off to Turkey.
In 1947 Capa was among a group of photojournalists who founded Magnum Photos. This was a co-operative organisation set up to support photographers and help them to retain ownership of the copyright to their work.
Capa went on to document many other wars. He never attempted to glamorize war though, but to record the horror. He once said, “The desire of any war photographer is to be put out of business”.
Capa died as he had lived. After promising not to photograph any more wars, he accepted an assignment to go to Indochina to cover the first Indochina war. On May 25th 1954 Capa was accompanying a French regiment when he left his jeep to take some photographs of the advance and stepped on a land mine. He was taken to a nearby hospital, still clutching his camera, but was pronounced dead on arrival. He left behind him a testament to the horrors of war and a standard for photojournalism that few others have been able to reach.
Capa’s legacy has lived on though and in 1966 his brother Cornell founded the International Fund for Concerned Photography in his honour. There is also a Robert Capa Gold Medal, which is given to the photographer who publishes the best photographic reporting from abroad with evidence of exceptional courage. But perhaps his greatest legacy of all are the haunting images of the human struggles that he captured. 2. Choose the correct answer.
1. Why did Capa change his name?
a. To hide his identity.
b. Because he had been involved in protests.
c. To sound more American.
d. Because he had to leave Hungary.
2. Capa originally wanted to be
a. a photojournalist.
b. a writer.
d. a professor.
3. Capa went to Spain to
a. fight in the civil war.
b. build his reputation.
c. have a holiday.
d. take photographs.
4. Capa’s most famous picture Death of a Loyalist Soldier
a. was taken by someone else.
b. was definitely genuine.
c. wasn’t even taken in Spain.
d. cannot be proven genuine or staged.
5. When World War II broke our Capa
a. went to New York.
b. swam ashore on Omaha Beach.
c. went to Europe.
d. went to Normandy.
6. A mistake meant that
a. only one hundred of Capa’s photographs were published.
b. Capa lost both of his two cameras.
c. Capa’s images inspired an Oscar winning movie.
d. most of Capa’s images of the D-Day landing were destroyed.
7. Capa’s private life was
a. less dramatic than his professional life.
b. spent mostly in Hollywood.
c. very glamorous.
d. spent in Turkey.
8. Capa wanted his work to
a. be very famous.
b. show how glamorous war can be.
c. show the true horror of war.
d. make lots of money.
9. Which sentence best paraphrases paragraph 5?
a. Capa had a tragic private life and was never able to settle down and find happiness.
b. Despite having many good friends and lovers, Capa always put his work first.
c. Capa wanted to make friends with important people in Hollywood so that he could move into the movie industry.
d. Capa’s private life was very complicated. He could not choose between the two women he loved, so he went off to work in Turkey.
10. Which sentence best paraphrases paragraph 4?
a. Capa never tried to avoid danger. He risked his life to take photographs of the D-Day invasion, but then destroyed most of them.
b. Capa took some of his most famous photographs during the D-Day invasion, but most were tragically destroyed in an accident.
c. Capa only kept the best eight D-Day photographs as the others were out of focus. These inspired the visual style of a Hollywood film.
d. Capa left Europe when the war broke out and went to take his most famous photographs of the D-Day invasion.
11. Which THREE sentences best summarise the text?
a. Capa’s work tried to show the beauty within the horror of war, that’s why so many photographers have tried to copy his work.
b. From the earliest years Capa was active in political journalism and reporting. This often got him into trouble with the authorities.
c. Capa was not afraid to get close to his work and often risked his life to ensure that his photographs were as good as they could be.
d. Capa wanted to have a glamorous life style and so he made friends with Hollywood film stars and even had a film, “Saving Private Ryan” made about him.
e. Capa was deeply committed to trying to stop war and he left behind him a legacy that continued to support and inspire other photojournalists to continue his work.
KING HOLIDAY CONSIDERED “MIXED BLESSING” BY SOME HISTORIANS 1. In the following article, the headings of five sections have been removed.Choose the best heading A – F for the five sections (1 – 5). On the third Monday of every January since 1986, schools, federal offices and banks across the United States are closed so that Americans can celebrate the birth and life of Martin Luther King, Jr. Reverend King was the dynamic civil rights leader who focused the world's attention on the problem of racial segregation in the American South.
He is remembered for his strategy of nonviolent resistance and his opposition to racism. But before he was assassinated in 1968, Reverend King had begun to challenge more than America's understanding of race, and some prominent historians fear that his opposition to U.S. economic and foreign policy is being forgotten. 1. ______________________________
"The greatest danger by far with King birthday celebrations is the umpteenth re-playing of the 'I Have a Dream' speech," says David Garrow, author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning book, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Professor Garrow calls the speech – which Reverend King delivered in 1963 on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. – an "unrepresentative sample" of what the civil leader stood for. He says the unrelenting focus on the address incorrectly makes Martin Luther King look like a "rosy-eyed optimist." 2. ______________________________
"Younger people are left with a really quite misleading impression of King that focuses too much on that one very upbeat speech," says Professor Garrow, "and oftentimes gives no attention whatsoever to King as a critic of economic inequality and American foreign policy around the world."
On the day he was assassinated, Martin Luther King was in Memphis, Tennessee, supporting a strike that had been launched by sanitation workers there. Just moments before he died, he was writing a sermon titled Why America May Go to Hell. Two years earlier, he had moved into a slum in the northern city of Chicago to call attention to urban poverty – and to challenge the notion that the South was the only region that had a problem with race.
Reverend King had also become an outspoken critic of the war in Vietnam, calling the United States "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today" during a sermon he delivered in New York in 1967. "In some respects," says Clayborne Carson, director of the King Papers Project at Stanford University, "the civil rights issues, narrowly conceived, were the easiest to resolve, because there you had a distinction between the way black people were treated in the South and the dominant values of the nation, as expressed by the [U.S.] Supreme Court in the Brown [vs. Board of Education] decision [which outlawed segregation.]" 3. ______________________________
Professor Carson, who has been editing the correspondence and speeches of Martin Luther King for the last 20 years, notes that Reverend King had changed his focus before he died. "When King started to confront the issues that were as common in the North as in the South," he says, "then I think he faced a much greater challenge. And I think that's the challenge we still face today."
So why is it that public remembrances of Reverend King have been so concentrated on the issues of race and non-violence, rather than on his criticisms of economic policy and the Vietnam War? Historian David Garrow says it is because very few people today object to Martin Luther King's call for an end to racial segregation. "If, on the other hand, King holiday events addressed King's identifying himself as a Democratic Socialist or King's emerging as a very outspoken critic of American militarism in Vietnam and Southeast Asia," he says, "then holiday celebrations would have to confront whether American society today has any greater level of economic equality than it did in 1968 and whether American foreign policy in the years since 1968 is fundamentally different than the militarism and go-it-alone attitudes that King criticized so forcefully."
David Garrow argues that the so-called "sweetening" of Martin Luther King's historical reputation was unavoidable once his birthday became a federal holiday. He says even the most conservative political leaders have had to find a way to embrace Reverend King's legacy – and putting the emphasis on the Baptist preacher's opposition to racial segregation has been that way.
For this reason, David Garrow says, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day has been a mixed blessing. On the one hand, it calls national attention to America's problematic history with race. But on the other hand, he says, the holiday has made it difficult for young African-Americans struggling with economic inequality to identify with a civil rights leader who was killed before they were born.
2. Use these headings to fill the spaces above. There is one extra you do not need to use.
A. Avoiding Difficult Questions
B. Fairer Chance For All
C. Inaccurate Legacy
D. A Question Of Necessity
E. Ongoing Struggle
F. Other Agendas
UNIT 4 HOUSING
Level A 2 ACCOMMODATION 1. Read the following information.
Amanda is 19 and wants to share with other girls of her age. She works unusual hours and needs to get to the city easily at all times on public transport.
Stephen and Pat live in the city centre with their children. They want to move to the countryside and are happy to drive into the city every day in exchange for peace and quiet.
Sarah, a student, wants a room in the city centre so she can walk to museums and art galleries. She doesn't have much money so she is looking for part-time work.
Taeko wants to live with an English family and join family life. She doesn't want to cook for herself. She needs to get to the city centre easily.
Martin and three friends are looking for a house to share. They have transport so they don't mind where it is. They can afford up to £1,000 per month.
2. Below are 8 notices offering different accommodation. Choose one notice for each person that best matches their needs. Choose "None" if there isn't a match. 1.
Room above restaurant on edge of city available free for person able to work in restaurant at weekends. Area has shops, library, etc. Buses to city centre every half an hour.
House to rent on a farm ten miles from city centre, four bedrooms and garden. Beautiful countryside. Lovely walks. Two miles to nearest village with shop and post office. No public transport. £1,1000 per month.
Fourth girl wanted to share house with three others aged 19-25. Two miles from city centre but 10 minutes by train, 24-hour service (we are 5 minutes' walk from station). Near shops. £60 per week including bills.
Would you like to live with a family right in the middle of the city? We are in South Street with shops, theatres, art galleries, museums, etc. just a ten-minute walk away. Room available in five-bedroom house for £45 per week - this can be reduced if you help in the house and with the children. Cook your own meals in our kitchen.
Cottage to rent ten miles from city centre but only a ten-minute walk to local station (journey to city centre takes 15 minutes). One large bedroom. Would suit a couple or two friends.
Two female students are looking for third girl to share flat in village near city. One bedroom, share kitchen and bathroom. We have a car so can offer shared lifts to the centre in the morning and evening. £60 per week including bills.
House for rent in a small village five miles from city centre. Very peaceful. Hourly bus service during day to city. No children allowed. £950 per month to be paid in advance.
Room available in family house - £65 per week with breakfast and evening meal included. Own room - share living room, meals, bathroom with family (three children). One mile from city centre. Bus every 15 minutes into city centre.
THE BIG ORANGE SPLOT 1. Read the story by Daniel Manus Pinkwater.
Mr. Plumbean lived on a street where all the houses were the same. He liked it that way. So did everybody else on Mr. Plumbean’s street.
“This is a neat street,” they would say. Then one day . . .
A seagull flew over Mr. Plumbean’s house. He was carrying a can of bright orange paint. (No one knows why.) And he dropped the can (no one knows why) right over Mr. Plumbean’s house. It made a big orange splot on Mr. Plumbean’s house. “Ooooh! Too bad!” everybody said. “Mr. Plumbean will have to paint his house again.”
“I suppose I will,” said Mr. Plumbean. But he didn’t paint his house right away. He looked at the big orange splot for a long time; then he went about his business.
The neighbors got tired of seeing that big orange splot. Someone said, “Mr. Plumbean, we wish you’d get around to painting your house.”
“O.K.,” said Mr. Plumbean. He got some blue paint and some white paint, and that night he got busy. He painted at night because it was cooler. When the paint was gone, the roof was blue. The walls were white. And the big orange splot was still there. Then he got some more paint. He got red paint, yellow paint, green paint, and purple paint.
In the morning the other people on the street came out of their houses. Their houses were all the same. But Mr. Plumbean’s house was like a rainbow. It was like a jungle. It was like an explosion. There was the big orange splot. And there were little orange splots. There were stripes. There were pictures of elephants and lions and pretty girls and steamshovels.
The people said, “Plumbean has popped his cork, flipped his wig, blown his stack, and dropped his stopper.” They went away muttering.
That day Mr. Plumbean bought carpenter’s tools. That night he built a tower on top of his roof, and he painted a clock on the tower.
The next day the people said, “Plumbean has gushed his mush, lost his marbles, and slipped his hawser.” They decided they would pretend not to notice.
That very night Mr. Plumbean got a truck full of green things. He planted palm trees, baobabs, thorn bushes, onions, and frangipani. In the morning he bought a hammock and an alligator.
When the other people came out of their houses, they saw Mr. Plumbean swinging in a hammock between two palm trees. They saw an alligator lying in the grass. Mr. Plumbean was drinking lemonade.
“Plumbean has gone too far!”
“This used to be a neat street!”
“Plumbean, what have you done to your house?” the people shouted.
“My house is me and I am it. My house is where I like to be and it looks like all my dreams,” Mr. Plumbean said.
The people went away. They asked the man who lived next door to Mr. Plumbean to go and have a talk with him. “Tell him that we all liked it here before he changed his house. Tell him that his house has to be the same as ours so we can have a neat street.”
The man went to see Mr. Plumbean that evening. They sat under the palm trees drinking lemonade and talking all night long.
Early the next morning the man went out to get lumber and rope and nails and paint. When the people came out of their houses they saw a red and yellow ship next door to the house of Mr. Plumbean.
“What have you done to your house?” they shouted at the man.
“My house is me and I am it. My house is where I like to be and it looks like all my dreams,” said the man, who had always loved ships.
“He’s just like Plumbean!” the people said. “He’s got bees in his bonnet, bats in his belfry, and knots in his noodle!”
Then, one by one, they went to see Mr. Plumbean, late at night. They would sit under the palm trees and drink lemonade and talk about their dreams — and whenever anybody visited Mr. Plumbean’s house, the very next day that person would set about changing his own house to fit his dreams.
Whenever a stranger came to the street of Mr. Plumbean and his neighbors, the stranger would say, “This is not a neat street.”
Then all the people would say, “Our street is us and we are it. Our street is where we like to be, and it looks like all our dreams.”
2. Choose the correct answer.
1. At the beginning of the story, why does everyone say, “This is a neat street”?
a. All the houses are alike.
b. All the houses are built well.
c. All the houses are cleaned every day.
d. All the houses are owned by the same person.
2. The neighbours most likely think that Mr. Plumbean will
a. cover the splot.
b. cover the walls.
c. make the house bright.
d. make the roof stronger.
3. According to the story, why does Mr. Plumbean work at night?
a. He can find supplies easier at night.
b. The street is too busy during the day.
c. The weather is too hot during the day.
d. He gets his best ideas working at night.
4. In the story, the hammock, the palm trees, and the alligator are all things that
a. make Mr. Plumbean happy.
b. cause Mr. Plumbean to complain.
c. Mr. Plumbean draws on his house.
d. Mr. Plumbean sees on other houses.
5. What does the story mostly show about Mr. Plumbean’s house?
a. It is old.
b. It is large.
c. It is colourful.
d. It is crowded.
6. What are Mr. Plumbean and his neighbour most likely doing?
a. Looking at pictures.
b. Building new homes.
c. Sharing their dreams.
d. Meeting new neighbours.
7.Based on the story, what does Mr. Plumbean mean when he says, “My house is me and I am it”?
a. His house is all that he thinks about.
b. He can only fit one person in his house.
c. He has lived in his house for a long time.
d. His house shows the kind of person that he is.
8. Based on the story, what do the neighbours learn?