М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова

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1. Read the text. Five sentences have been removed from the article.

Do you believe in ghosts? Some people do.

1. ________________________________________________________________. They report feeling cold, not being able to move, and, above all, a terrible feeling of fear. But it’s very hard to prove you really have seen a ghost. Without a photo, how can your friends and family believe you?

If you ever want to meet a ghost, the Tower of London is a good place to start. It’s nearly 1,000 years old, and many terrifying things have happened there.

2. __________________________________________________________________. Perhaps it’s not a surprise, then, that people say they’ve seen her ghost walking through the Tower gardens.

Another famous ghost of the Tower is Sir Walter Raleigh. He was an explorer who lived in the 16thcentury, and Queen Elizabeth I (first) put him in prison in the Tower. Many people say his ghost haunts the Tower on moonlit nights.

3. __________________________________________________________________. In 1976, one of the guard’s wives was alone in her apartment in the Tower when she felt an ice-cold hand on her back. She knew it wasn’t her husband, but she didn’t scream – she just said, quietly, ‘Oh, go away, Raleigh.

Of course, ghost hunters can now use technology to help them prove a ghost has visited.

4. __________________________________________________________________. One group of ghost hunters did manage to get photos of some strange lights. About 90% of what was in the photos was easy to explain, but 10% wasn’t …

In 2001, the same group decided to hunt for ghosts in the Tower of London, which had never been done before. They used equipment that could tell if the air got colder or hotter, and they also set up special cameras which could see in the dark.

They linked their cameras to a website, and over two days, you could watch some of their film on your computer, sitting in your warm home.

5. __________________________________________________________________. But at least if you got a strange feeling, you could turn the computer off!
2. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list A – F for each part (1 – 5) of the text. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A. If you work or live in the Tower, you have to be good with ghosts!

B. Nearly 500 years ago, Queen Anne Boleyn, the wife of King Henry VIII (eighth), had her head cut off there.

C. Although you were safe, it was still frightening, as you were watching a ‘real’ film.

D. Anne is also spotted in the Chapel of Saint Peter ad Vincula where she watches over her own grave under the altar.

E. They’re absolutely certain that they’ve seen or felt something strange.

F. If they don’t want to wait for hours in a dark, empty building, they can just set up a camera to do it for them, and take a picture!

Level B 1
1. There are three million immigrants in New York City. When they left home, knowing it could be forever, they packed what they could not bear to leave behind: necessities, luxuries, memories. Here is a look at what some of them bought.

2. Match each of the texts with an object.
* Jessica Lane, 29 | Came from: Perth, Australia |

Came in: 2010 Picture: ___

Ms Lane outgrew her first pair after three months. Instead of saving them, as many in her profession do, she sold them for a bigger pair. She bought this pair on a trip to New York; she took them back to Perth, where they were left in a box. But now, after moving to New York for good, “I know they’ll be used again very soon,” she said. “They represent the turning point of my new life in New York, where so many opportunities lay ahead for me”, she wrote in an e-mail. She’s working at a Midtown bar and auditioning as much as she can. “Perhaps when they bite the dust, I will hold onto this pair,” she said.

* Luz Andriana Villegas, 34 | Came from: Medellin, Colombia |

Came in: May 2001 Picture: ___

When Ms Villegas graduated from college with dreams of becoming a journalist, her parents gave her this object. She and her brother used to compete to fins esoteric Spanish words, and this object was a treasure-trove. Ms Villegas brought it with her to New York on what was supposed to be a summer visit for an English class. She married an American and stayed. They now have three sons and she teaches adult literacy. Though she rarely uses it, she has carried it from apartment to apartment. Today, it sits on the bottom shelf in her basement of her home in Ridgewood, Queens, near her sons’ toys.

* Gendaris Tavera, 18 | Came from: Dominican Republic |

Came on: March 14, 2008 Picture: ___

When Ms Tavera was 15, her grandmother gave her a pink one to add to her growing collection. When she left home, it was the only one she brought. She has since repaired its paws and watched its colour fade. Sitting in her too-small basement apartment in Sunset Park, Brooklyn, Ms Tavera wonders if she’s still her grandmother’s favourite. She wonders why her grandmother’s chicken tastes better than anything in New York and if the New York winter will ever end. She takes solace in it, “I talk to it like it’s a real person,” she said. “When I feel sad, I cry into it.”

* Thein Myint, 50 | Came from: Yangon, Myanmar |

Came in: September, 2010 Picture: ___

Back home Mr. Myint was a doctor. He kept a photograph of his graduation ceremony on the wall as a testament to his years of hard work in school and his dedication to treating the sick. Today, he keeps his object in a manila folder inside a briefcase. He gave the photograph to his sister, who stayed behind. He is unable to work as a doctor in New York – the credentials do not transfer, and he speaks little English. Instead, he is applying to work at a catering company at Kennedy International Airport. “Rent is expensive,” Mr. Myint said. “I must do the job, any job.” But he misses medicine. He recently completed a course in phlebotomy so that he can draw blood from patients. “I want to treat people,” he said. He lives in Elmhurst Queens, with his wife and their four children. They don’t plan to ever return to Myanmar for fear of political persecution. He looks at his object and puts it aside. “I hope one day it’ll be useful,” he said.

* Albert Barawandika, 30 | Came from: Rwanda via Burundi |

Came in: 2006 Picture: ___

The wooden object is heavy – about two pounds. It was a strange thing to pack for the long journey to New York from Bujumbura, Burundi, but Mr. Barawandika liked it. He was born in Rwanda, but during the genocide, his family fled to Burundi, where his father came from. Months later, his mother and brother were killed in the violence that tore the region apart. But despite all the horrors, he still loved Burundi, which he considers his homeland. It hangs on the wall of his dorm room in the Bronx, where he is studying medicine. American friends ask him about it and he tells them stories of Africa. For him, it represents hope. “It’s durable, it’ll last forever,” he said. “I still have hope that someday things will change there.”

* Istvan Makky, 74 | Came from: Tejfalusziget, Hungary |

Came in: October, 1959 Picture: ___

This tool is smaller than a teaspoon. It’s used for making delicate lines and scooping ridges in the molds that are used to cast metal sculptures. An administrator handed it to Mr. Makky on his first day of metalworking school in 1953 in Communist Hungary, along with boots, six pairs of socks and underwear. He carried it when he slipped past the border guards with machine guns and through the barbed wire fence. He carried it as he looked for work in Austria. He carried it to Flushing, Queens, where he raised a family and to Greenpoint, Brooklyn, where he built a foundry of his own. He does not let anyone else use it, not even his youngest son Bill who runs the company with him.

* Milton Ming, 33 | Came from: Kingston, Jamaica |

Came in: 1995 Picture: ___

It first belonged to Mr. Ming’s sister Maxine, but he couldn’t resist stealing it. “She would leave it careless and we would read it,” he said. When Maxine caught him, she took what was hers but gave him the exterior. He started writing short entries next to “names and addresses of females I used to mess with”. Decades later, Mr. Ming said “It’s memory lane.” He still flips through it, connecting again with his teenage self back in Jamaica. “I wish it was more detailed,” he said. Today he works as an electrician and lives in East Harlem. Five of Mr. Ming’s siblings are in New York, including Maxine, and they have dinner together every Thursday.

* Zongluan Ouyang, 27 | Came from: Fujian Province, China |

Came in: February, 2005 Picture: ___

Mr. Ouyang is a Methodist now, not a Buddhist. He goes by the name Roy. And he no longer wears this item that his parents gave him when he left his fishing village “to keep him safe”. Instead it sits in a cluttered desk drawer in the single room he rents in Sunset Park, Brooklyn. It is one of the only things he still has from home. One recent afternoon, Mr. Ouyang looked at this object for the first time in ages. “It reminds me of my parents,” he said. They were not educated, and would recognise little of his life in Brooklyn, where Mr. Ouyang works as a wedding photographer. But he said, “They understand me.”

* Ruth Heiman, 87 | Came from: Nuremburg, Germany via England |

Came in: 1947 Picture: ___

Mrs. Heiman keeps it with others of its kind, but it means something very different from the other pieces. It was her mother’s, saved somehow from the concentration camp where her parents were killed. Mrs. Heiman said: “All my life until now I tried to push the past out of my mind. I live in the present. But there are certain things you don’t give up.” It’s just about all she has from her mother, who stayed in Germany when Mrs. Heiman, then 15 went to stay with relatives in England to escape the Nazis. She had no idea she would never see her parents again. Mrs. Heiman fell in love with an American soldier in England. They were married for 50 years. He died in 1997. Mrs. Heiman, who lives in Fresh Meadows, Queens, plans to give it to her granddaughter or daughter-in-law. Touching it as she spoke, she said “Without it some of my past would be lost.”

* Huan Zheng, 28 | Came from: Fujian Province, China |

Came in: February, 2000 Picture: ___

It was as exotic as anything Ms. Zheng and her friends in southeastern China had ever seen. It was a bright colour and marked with Italian words that “we didn’t know how to pronounce,” she said. “It was a fascinating glimpse of this other world.” As a girl, she took the lessons without enthusiasm. But she liked this object, mostly because none of her friends had one. As a teenager, she began pushing her parents to move to America. When Ms. Zheng was 17, her mother took her there, but soon moved back to China. In her new home, Ms. Zheng found comfort in this object. “For months, I couldn’t speak much. I’d play to fill the silent days,” she said. Today, she has a high-powered job at an international bank. At night, she plays the keyboard in her small Manhattan apartment. She rarely uses the object anymore, but keeps it just the same. “It’s one of the few things that hasn’t changed and has stayed with me all those years,” she said.

* Abdul Rafiq, 73 | Came from: Karachi, Pakistan |

Came in: 1992 Picture: ___

Everyone knows Mr. Rafiq as Babuji, and everyone knows Babuji for his paan. He makes the snack at his sidewalk stall in Midwood, a Brooklyn neighbourhood popular with Pakistanis. He wraps a betel-nut leaf around a signature mix of lime, cardamom, fennel seeds, shredded coconut and rose-petal preserves. He sells paan for $1 each, no extra charge for tobacco sprinkled on top. Mr. Rafiq has been making the same concoction since he was a teenager working a busy street in Karachi. And he has been using the same object to make it for nearly as long. Besides two bags of clothes, these objects were just about the only thing he took with him when he left Pakistan. “It’s what I know” he said, as he dribbled circles of rose-petal syrup across the leaf. He said he had never worked another job, a distinction that set him apart from his rival paan sellers further along Coney Island Avenue. He pointed to the objects and said, “These two are very dear to me.”

* Nancy Kahn, 32 | Came from: Dhaka, Bangladesh |

Came in: 1999 Picture: ___

When Ms. Kahn won the lottery visa and prepared to move to the US, her brother gave her this object, called a boti, to remind her of home. But it was a souvenir boti and not a real one. She regretted that she had not packed a real one. “I did think about working in a kitchen,” she said. “After I came I saw I had to do everything by hand. In Bangladesh, we always had a maid to help us.” She did finally buy a boti when she went back to visit, but she really doesn’t have the space to use it in her home, in the Throngs Neck section of the Bronx. Still she keeps her souvenir boti, though she often has to hide it from her two young children. “It makes me think of my family and my culture and my Bangladesh.”

1. Read a magazine article.

A recent survey of crime statistics shows that we are all more likely to be burgled now than 20 years ago and the police advise everyone to take a few simple precautions to protect their homes.

The first fact is that burglars and other intruders prefer easy opportunities, like a house which is very obviously empty. This is much less of a challenge than an occupied house, and one which is well-protected. A burglar will wonder if it is worth the bother.

There are some general tips on how to avoid your home becoming another crime statistic. Avoid leaving signs that your house is empty. When you have to go out, leave at least one light on as well as a radio or television, and do not leave any curtains wide open. The sight of your latest music centre or computer is enough to tempt any burglar.

Never leave a spare key in a convenient hiding place. The first place a burglar will look is under the doormat or in a flower pot and even somewhere more 'imaginative' could soon be uncovered by the intruder. It is much safer to leave a key with a neighbour you can trust. But if your house is in a quiet, desolate area be aware that this will be a burglar's dream, so deter any potential criminal from approaching your house by fitting security lights to the outside of your house.

But what could happen if, in spite of the aforementioned precautions, a burglar or intruder has decided to target your home? Windows are usually the first point of entry for many intruders. Downstairs windows provide easy access while upstairs windows can be reached with a ladder or by climbing up the drainpipe. Before going to bed you should double-check that all windows and shutters are locked. No matter how small your windows may be, it is surprising what a narrow gap a determined burglar can manage to get through. For extra security, fit window locks to the inside of the window.

What about entry via doors? Your back door and patio doors, which are easily forced open, should have top quality security locks fitted. Even though this is expensive it will be money well spent. Install a burglar alarm if you can afford it as another line of defence against intruders.

A sobering fact is that not all intruders have to break and enter into a property. Why go to the trouble of breaking in if you can just knock and be invited in? Beware of bogus officials or workmen and, particularly if you are elderly, fit a chain and an eye hole so you can scrutinise callers at your leisure. When you do have callers never let anybody into your home unless you are absolutely sure they are genuine. Ask to see an identity card, for example.

If you are in the frightening position of waking in the middle of the night and think you can hear an intruder, then on no account should you approach the intruder. Far better to telephone the police and wait for help.
2. Choose the correct answer.

1. A well-protected house

a. is less likely to be burgled.

b. is regarded as a challenge by most criminals.

c. is a lot of bother to maintain.

d. is very unlikely to be burgled.

2. According to the writer, we should

a. avoid leaving our house empty.

b. only go out when we have to.

c. always keep the curtains closed.

d. give the impression that our house is occupied when we go out.

3. The writer thinks that hiding a key under a doormat or flower pot

a. is a predictable place to hide it.

b. is a useful place to hide it.

c. is imaginative.

d. is where you always find a spare key.

4. The 'aforementioned precautions' refer to steps that

a. will tell a burglar if your house is empty or not.

b. are the most important precautions to take to make your home safe.

c. will stop a potential burglar.

d. will not stop an intruder if he has decided to try and enter your home.

5. Gaining entry to a house through a small window

a. is surprisingly difficult.

b. is not as difficult as people think.

c. is less likely to happen than gaining entry through a door.

d. is tried only by very determined burglars.

6. According to the writer, window locks, security locks and burglar alarms

a. cost a lot of money but are worth it.

b. are good value for money.

c. are luxury items.

d. are absolutely essential items.

7. The writer argues that fitting a chain and an eye hole

a. will prevent your home being burgled.

b. avoids you having to invite people into your home.

c. is only necessary for elderly people.

d. gives you time to check if the visitor is genuine.

8. What is the best title for the text?

a. Increasing household crime.

b. Protecting your home from intruders.

c. What to do if a burglar breaks into your home.

d. Burglary statistics.


1. Read the story by CNN San Francisco reporter James Hattori.
"Let's go to work. You ready?" the woman says to her dog.

Sydney is a two-year-old mixed Labrador retriever who abhors spores. She is sniffing Laura Herlow's house, hunting for mold.

1. __________________________________________________________________.

Sydney is one of about ten animals who have spent hundreds of hours with a police dog trainer in Florida. Now she's certified to detect mold.

"Good girl."

"So what does that mean? What is she indicating there?" asks an observer.

"She is indicating that she has detected mold somewhere in this vicinity right here.

2. _________________________________________________________________”.

Herlow, whose young son suffers from epileptic seizures, turned to Sydney after getting frustrated with several other mold contractors.

3. __________________________________________________________________.

"No. I would rather trust a dog and have an unbiased opinion," says Herlow.

"She's got it. She's found mold where we haven't suspected it and we have looked further and verified that she was correct," says Sydney's handler. Including this unlikely spot around a shower but away from any openings.

"The professional mold cleanup company is going to contain this area and take this shower assembly out," says one of the mold company's employees.

4. __________________________________________________________________.

"We've been using dogs for bombs and drugs and other scent work but it is just in the last eighteen months that people are making the connection that dogs are a great tool in the mold industry," says Mold Detectives employee.

5. __________________________________________________________________.

Traditional detection methods can drag on for weeks, sampling and then waiting for test results and then testing the air at a cost of up to thousands of dollars.

"With the dog we can do that same exact testing for less than $500 and pinpoint exactly where the mold is so then the cleanup costs are substantially less."

6. __________________________________________________________________.

"Mostly respiratory problems, a lot of asthma, trouble sleeping, pain everywhere." Until she moved out of the family home. Then Sydney found that toxic mold had spread from the bathroom under the flooring into Janelle's bedroom.

7. __________________________________________________________________.


"But the dog sniffed it?"

"Yes. Which is I think awesome."

While experts say it is unclear just how bad toxic molds can be to human health, worried homeowners now have a new weapon to unleash.
2. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list A – H for each part (1 – 7) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A. While popular in Europe for years mold-sniffing dogs are relatively new in the US.

B. She does a passive alert. So she sits when she finds mold.

C. A sniffer dog, however, can detect where the mold is located.

D. Were you skeptical at first that a dog could do this?

E. One big advantage is cost.

F. She's usually good for a three to four foot path.

G. You couldn't see anything?

H. Jenelle Nary is a believer; she spent years suffering from mysterious illnesses.

Level B 2
1. Read the article.

There's nothing the British like more than to go and get lost. In grand gardens of stately homes and castles around Britain you'll find some of the world's oldest and largest hedge mazes. These elegant horticultural labyrinths have been playfully confusing visitors for hundreds of years.

This historical fascination is being fuelled by a boom in creating new mazes. Britain now has mazes of turf, water, brick, stone, wood, colored paving tiles, mirrors and glass.
Hampton Court

Any exploration of the twists and turns of British mazes should include the oldest and most famous. The classic maze at Hampton Court Royal Palace by the Thames in West London was planted more than 300 years ago during the reign of King William III. He dug up an old orchard planted by Henry VIII and redesigned the garden in the formal style of the time.

The 1702 Maze is the only remaining part of William's garden. It's Britain's oldest hedge maze with winding paths amounting to nearly half a mile and covering a third of an acre. One of Jerome K. Jerome's "Three Men in a Boat" declared it "very simple ... it's absurd to call it a maze," only to become completely lost. Inside he met other visitors "who had given up all hope of ever seeing their home and friends again."

The Hampton Court maze still swallows 300,000 people a year. If you do manage to get out, there are also exquisite riverside gardens and the fabulous Tudor palace to see.

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