М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова



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OUR UNIVERSITY


Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.establishment (n)

учреждение

2.external student (n)

студент заочного отделения

3.internal student (n)

студент дневного отделения

4.to incorporate (v)

включать в состав

5.to equip (v)

оснащать, оборудовать

6.to obtain (v)

получать

7.preliminary exam (n)

зачёт

8.to be engaged in (n)

заниматься

We are students of Belarus State Economic University. It was formed in 1992 on the basis of the Byelorussian State Institute of the National Economy founded in 1933. It is the biggest educational establishment in Belarus training specialists for the republic’s economy. The number of external and internal students is more than 24 thousand.

There are nine schools at the University – School of Accounting and Economics, School of Management, School of Accounting and Statistics, School of Finance and Banking, School of Marketing, School of Law, School of International Economic Relations, School of Commerce Economics and Management, School of Language Studies. In addition, BSEU incorporates Higher School of Tourism, Higher School of Business and Management, Consulting Center for Commerce, a specialized school of pre-university training, a specialized school of psychological and teaching up-dating. The university has a Research Center and a Publishing Center. The university library is one of the best supplied and equipped in the country.

The university has 57 departments, research laboratories, a student campus and a retail trade center.

The University occupies seven buildings. The conditions for study are good. The university is proud of its technical equipment. It has about 40 computer classrooms, training bookkeeping centers, as well as automated PC-based training offices for specialists in management, finance, banking and commerce. Classes are fully equipped for language study. Satellite TV, the Internet and local computing network are widely used in the teaching process.

The academic year is divided into two terms: the winter term and the summer term. It is a four- or a five-year course. Terminal examinations and preliminary exams are held in January and June. State examinations are held at the end of the course of studies. Upon graduation we can obtain bachelor or master degrees.

Our University provides us with high standard of theoretical and practical knowledge. We learn different subjects: finance, banking, statistics, accounting, mathematics, foreign languages, philosophy etc.

A large part of study is devoted to fundamental subjects. This provides the basis for the study of special subjects and the organization of production practice. At our English lessons we read our textbooks and newspapers, ask and answer questions, do all sorts of exercises. We try to speak English in class and we want to speak English well. Many of our teachers are noted scholars, so advanced students are engaged in research.
Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1.to found

розничная продажа

2.department

проводиться

3.retail

обеспечивать

4.to be held

знаменитый, известный

5.academic year

кафедра

6.bachelor degree

основывать

7.to provide

учебный год

8.noted

степень бакалавра


Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Образовательное учреждение, факультет финансов и банковского дела, факультет права, факультет международных экономических отношений, факультет до вузовской подготовки, факультет повышения квалификации по психологии и педагогике, библиотека, научно- исследовательские лаборатории, студенческий городок, центр розничной торговли, техническое оборудование, бухгалтерский учёт, учебный процесс, семестр, степень магистра, производственная практика, заниматься научно-исследовательской работой, посвящать.



Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

  1. The Belarus State Economic University was formed in 1998 on the basis of the Byelorussian State Institute of the National Economy founded in 1935.

  2. The number of external and internal students is more than 15 thousand.

  3. The university has a Research Center and a Publishing Center.

  4. The university has 47 departments, research laboratories, a student campus and a retail trade center.

  5. The university has about 46 computer classrooms, training bookkeeping centers, as well as automated PC-based training offices for specialists in management, finance, banking and commerce.

  6. Satellite TV, the Internet and local computing network are widely used in the teaching process.

  7. State examinations are held at the end of the course of studies.

  8. We learn different subjects: finance, banking, statistics, accounting, mathematics, foreign languages, philosophy, etc.

  9. At our English lessons we read our textbooks and newspapers, ask and answer questions, do all sorts of exercises.

Ex.4. Answer the questions:

1. When was Belarus State Economic University formed?

2. What schools does it incorporate?

3. How many departments does the university have?

4. What can you say about the conditions for study at our university?

5. What subjects do you learn at the university?

6. Are classes fully equipped for language study?

7. Terminal examinations and preliminary exams are held in January and June, aren’t they?

8. Do you try to speak English in class?
Ex.5. Complete the sentences:


  1. Belarus State Economic University was formed in 1992 on the basis of… .

  2. The number of external and internal students is more ... .

  3. There are nine schools at the University … .

  4. In addition, BSEU incorporates Higher School of Tourism, Higher School of Business and Management … .

  5. The university library is one of the best … .

  6. Satellite TV, the Internet and local computing network are … .

  7. We learn different subjects: … .

  8. At our English lessons we read our textbooks and newspapers, … .

  9. Many of our teachers are noted scholars, so … .


Ex.6. Make up a plan of the text and retell it.
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.organized way of providing for smth.

организованный способ обеспечения

чего-либо



2. problem of scarcity (n)

проблема нехватки, дефицита

3. to draw up (v)

cocтавлять

4. to change direction drastically

изменить направление решительно

5. lack of incentives (n)

недостаток стимулов

6. to adjust to changes over time (v)

приспосабливаться к изменению времени

All societies have an economic system or organized way of providing for the wants and needs of their people. The survival of any society depends on its ability to provide food, clothing and shelter for its people. However, all societies face the problem of scarcity of resources and unlimited wants of their people. Many different economic systems have been used in attempts to solve the problem of scarcity. So every society must answer the following questions: What goods and services must be produced? How must those goods and services be produced? For whom must they be produced? The way in which decisions concerning what, how and for whom to produce are made, determines the type of economic system.

There are three major kinds of economic system. They may be classified as traditional, command and market.

In a society with a traditional economy nearly all economic activity is the result of ritual and custom. The answer to the what, how and for whom questions are decided by tradition and custom in such societies. People always know what goods and services will be produced, how to produce them and how to distribute them. The main advantage of a traditional economy is that everyone has a role in it. There are several disadvantages in the society with a traditional economy. This economic system tends to discourage new ideas, punishes people for breaking rules or doing things differently.

In some societies government plays a big role in answering the fundamental economic questions. An economy where a central authority draws up a plan that determines what will be produced, how it will be produced and who will get it is called a command economy. The control of most production is in the government hand. The major advantage of a command economy is that it can change direction drastically in a relatively short time. The main disadvantages are as follows: it does not always meet people’s wants and needs. There is a lack of incentives that encourage people to work hard.

In a market economy the basic economic questions are answered without the necessity of a central government plan and directives. The basic coordinating mechanisms in a market economy are competition and price. The competition among individuals and firms dictates what goods to produce, how to produce them and who will use these goods.

A market economy has several advantages that traditional and command economies do not have. A market economy is flexible. It can adjust to changes over time. The second is the freedom that exists for everyone involved. It means that each individual may make a choice what to produce and what to buy. The third advantage is the lack of significant government interference.

There are no purely command economies and no purely market economies. All economies are mixed.


Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1.survival

a) рыночная экономика

2.unlimited wants

b) центральная власть

3.advantage

c) подвижный

4.market economy

d) выживание

5.to determine

e) неограниченные потребности

6.a central authority

f) преимущество

7.flexible

g)определять


Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Экономическая система, общество, удовлетворять потребности, производить товары, конкуренция, распределять товары и услуги, традиционная экономика, командная экономика, правительство, делать выбор, вмешательство правительства, смешанная экономика, потребности, рыночная экономика, преимущество, недостаток.


Ex.3. Say whether these statements are right or wrong:

  1. The survival of any society doesn’t depend on its ability to provide food, clothing and shelter for its people.

  2. There are four major kinds of economic system.

  3. All societies face the problem of scarcity of resources and unlimited wants of their people.

  4. The main disadvantage of a traditional economy is that everyone has a role in it.

  5. The major advantage of a command economy is that it can change drastically in a relatively short time.

  6. In a market economy the basic economic questions are answered without the necessity of a central government plan and directives.

  7. The basic coordinating mechanisms in a market economy are a plan and a custom.

  8. A market economy is not flexible.


Ex.4. Answer the questions

  1. What do all societies have in common?

  2. What does the survival of any society depend on?

  3. What do all societies face with in the process of providing people’s wants and needs?

  4. What fundamental economic questions must every society answer?

  5. What determines the type of economic system?

  6. What is the main advantage of a traditional economy?

  7. What are the disadvantages of a traditional economy?

  8. What is a command economy?

  9. What is the main advantage of a command economy?

  10. How are the basic economic questions answered in a market economy?

  11. What advantages does the market economy have?


Ex.5.Complete the sentences:

  1. All societies have an economic system or …

  2. However, all societies face the problem of…

  3. Every society must answer the following questions…

  4. The way in which decisions concerning what, how and for whom to produce are made …

  5. People always know…

  6. In some societies government plays…

  7. The major advantage of a command economy is …

  8. There is a lack of incentives that…

  9. The basic coordinating mechanisms in a market economy are…

  10. The advantages of a market economy are …


Ex.6.Make up a plan of the text and retell it.

FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1. community (n)

общество, община, группа населения

2. to charter (v)

даровать привилегию

3. governor (n)

член правления

4. rate (n)

ставка

5. discount rate (n)

ставка рефинансирования

6. requirement (n)

нужда, потребность

7. tool (n)

инструмент, орудие

8. vault (n)

хранилище

9. to promote (v)

продвигать, содействовать

10.to set aside (v)

выделять, откладывать

11.tight money (n)

ограниченный кредит

The Federal Reserve System is the central bank for the U.S. It is an independent U.S. government agency. Its most important function is to manage the country’s supply of money and credit.

The Federal Reserve System includes 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks and 25 Federal Reserve Bank branches. All nationally charted commercial banks are required by law to be members of the Federal Reserve System; membership is optional for state-chartered banks. In general, a bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System uses the Reserve Bank in its region in the same way that a person uses a bank in his or her community.

The Federal Reserve System is administered by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, a group of seven individuals who are appointed by the president of the United States and serve 14-year terms. Although the Federal Reserve System is directly responsible to Congress, the governors are, by law, independent of political pressure from either Congress or the president.

The Federal Reserve has three main tools for maintaining control over the total supply of money and credit in the economy. The first is the discount rate, or the interest rate that commercial banks pay to borrow funds from Reserve Banks. By raising or lowering the discount rate, the Fed can promote or discourage borrowing and, thus, alter the amount of revenue available to banks for making loans.

The second is the reserve requirement. These are percentages of deposits, set by the Federal Reserve, that commercial banks must set aside either as currency in their vaults or as deposits at their regional Reserve Banks. These percentages cannot be used for loans.

The third tool is known as open market operations. It is the buying and selling of government securities. When the Federal Reserve buys government securities from banks, other businesses or individuals, it pays for them with a check (a new source of money that it prints) drawn on itself.

These tools allow the Federal Reserve to expand the amount of money and credit in the U.S. economy. When there is more money to lend, credit is “loose” and interest rates tend to drop. In general, business and consumer spending tend to rise when interest rates fall. When there is less money to lend, credit is “tight” and interest rates tend to rise. Tight money is considered a particularly powerful tool for fighting inflation.


Ex.1.Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. reserve

a) необязательный

2. administer

b) ценная бумага

3. drop

c) резерв

4. optional

d) управлять, вести дела

5. security

e) назначать

6. appoint

f) процентная ставка

7. interest rate

g) падать


Ex.2.Give English equivalents from the text:

Филиал, требование резерва, деньги, правительственные ценные бумаги, борьба с инфляцией, мощный инструмент, способствовать, иметь тенденцию, увеличивать количество денег, потребитель, ограниченный кредит, ставка рефинансирования, подчиняться, давать взаймы, изменять количество дохода, ценные бумаги, брать взаймы.



Ex.3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

  1. The Federal Reserve System is a dependent U.S. government agency.

  2. The Federal Reserve System is administered by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors.

  3. The Federal Reserve System includes 15 regional Federal Reserve Banks and 20 Federal Reserve Bank branches.

  4. Membership is not optional for state-chartered banks.

  5. The first tool for maintaining control over the total supply of money and credit in the economy is the discount rate.

  6. The percentages of deposits, set by the Federal Reserve, can be used for loans.

  7. When the Federal Reserve buys government securities from banks, other businesses or individuals, it pays for them with a check.


Ex 4. Answer the questions:

  1. What is the Federal Reserve System?

  2. What is the main, principal function of the system?

  3. Who appoints the Federal Reserve Board of Governors?

  4. What are the main tools for maintaining control over the total supply of money and credit in the economy?

  5. What is the reserve requirement?

  6. Why is tight money considered a particularly powerful tool for fighting inflation?


Ex.5. Complete the sentences:

  1. The Federal Reserve System is …

  2. Its most important function is …

  3. The Federal Reserve System is administered by…

  4. The Federal Reserve System has three main tools for…

  5. The third tool for maintaining control over the total supply of money and credit is known…

  6. When there is more money to lend, credit is …

  7. When there is less money to lend, credit is …

  8. Tight money is considered…


Ex.6.Make up a plan of the text and retell it.


FORMS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1. sole proprietorship (n)

единоличное владение

2. to exist (v)

существовать

3. to own (v)

владеть

4. unlimited liability (n)

неограниченная юридическая ответственность

5. to run (v)

управлять

6. to create (v)

создавать

7. to be responsible for (v)

быть ответственным за что-либо

8. partnership (n)

партнерство

9. to recover one’s money (v)

вернуть свои деньги

10. debt (n)

долг

11. disadvantage (n)

недостаток

12. to be subject to taxation

подлежать налогообложению

13. to issue (v)

выпускать

A business may be privately organized in three different forms. These forms are the sole proprietorship, the partnership and the corporation. Most business firms are created and exist to make a profit.



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