М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова



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Longleat


Another great estate 100 miles to the west has become one of the centers of British maze-making. A visit to Longleat in Wiltshire includes the ancestral stately home of Lord Bath, Capability Brown landscaped gardens, and a drive-through animal safari park … plus six mazes.

The newest of them, The Blue Peter Maze was built of timber especially for children. It was designed by a nine-year-old girl who beat 12,000 entrants in a competition run by a children's TV program.

Other Longleat mazes include the indoor King Arthur's Mirror Maze, the rose-covered Love Labyrinth, and the intertwining Sun Maze and Lunar box hedge labyrinths.

Serious maze enthusiasts are catered to by the grand Hedge Maze: it has the world's longest total path length at 1.69 miles. The hedges are made from 16,180 yew trees and are laid out in curves to disorient the walker. It opened 26 years ago and is so complex that special 'lift if lost' direction panels are incorporated to help you find the way out.
Jubilee Park
If you're starting to get the taste for delightful disorientation, the third must-see site is the eccentric Jubilee Park close to the border with Wales near Symonds Yat in Herefordshire.

Maze-mad brothers Lindsay and Edward Heyes planted The Amazing Hedge Puzzle Maze to commemorate Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee in 1977. It stands in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in the Wye Valley and is now Herefordshire's most popular private visitor attraction.

The octagonal cypress maze has a pagoda at the center – if you can find it. There's also a route from the center to the world's first Maze Museum. This has hands-on interactive displays and puzzles explaining the history, design and construction of mazes around the world.

Lindsay is the creator of the museum and an acknowledged maze expert. Edward meanwhile takes care of the Hedge Maze, personally spending ten weeks doing all the trimming every year.


Hever Castle
You don't have to be crazy about mazes to enjoy the spectacular Hever Castle in Kent. From the outside, the 13th-century double-moated fortress has changed little since Henry VIII's second wife Anne Boleyn spent her childhood here. The castle is set in 30 acres of magnificent gardens. A century ago the wealthy Astor family lived here and planted a yew maze, which visitors can still explore. A more recent addition is the highly acclaimed Water Maze on a shallow lake with an island at the center.

The walkways are made up of curved paths supported above the water on stilts. To make getting to the island even more difficult, some slabs, when stepped on, trigger a spray of water. Can you reach the island AND stay dry?


2. Choose from the list of places (A – D) for each question. Some of the choices may be required more than once.


In which places


1. does a member of the aristocracy still live?


A. Hampton Court


B. Longleat


C. Jubilee Park


D. Hever Castle

2. is there a maze that was made to mark a special occasion?

3. does the creator personally take care of the maze?

4. is there a maze that was ridiculed – before getting its revenge?

5. is there a maze created by the youngest person?

6. could tackling the maze prove a damp experience?

7. did a rich family create a maze?


8. is there a maze that a newlywed couple would perhaps like to visit?

9. does the maze include maps showing you how to get out?

10. would you see yourself getting lost in the maze?

A JAPANESE PAPER HOUSE

The design and construction of ancient Japanese houses were interesting in many ways. These beautiful homes also provided ideas for Frank Lloyd Wright, a famous architect who designed and built the home called Fallingwater in the United States.
1. Read the selection.

The Japanese islands experience torrential monsoon rains, earthquakes, and typhoons.

The traditional Japanese house from the 16th century featured an elegant roof with wide overhangs to protect against bad weather, and a raised floor to keep out mud. Wooden framing and paper walls allowed for easy rebuilding after an earthquake. With its sliding partitions, this “breathing house” opened on all sides to let in cool, fresh air and to give glimpses of a beautiful garden outside.


Woven Flooring

Tatami, which are mats woven of fine straw, formed the floor of the traditional Japanese house. They continue to be used in some present-day homes. According to Japanese custom, visitors must remove their shoes when they enter any home, even modern ones. This tradition helps keep the house clean and preserves the delicate tatami.


A Flexible Layout

The space inside the traditional house could be divided in many different ways by walls, sliding doors, and portable folding screens. Paintings of landscapes, birds, and flowers often decorated these interior partitions. Moving these partitions could change the arrangement and the number of rooms in a few minutes.


Inside Outside

Walls made of special strong paper mounted on a wooden frame provided privacy while allowing light to enter the house. The sections of the wall could slide easily to either side to allow a view of the garden. This design was especially convenient during the hot Japanese summer, when the house could be completely opened up to catch passing breezes.


Privacy and Shade

Blinds made of reeds bound together in long flat sheets hung from beneath the roof. They could be rolled down to provide shade. Garden walls were made of bamboo, bark, or twigs.


Garden Architecture

The gardens were closely linked to the architecture of houses and temples. They were

often designed to be seen from inside the building. The gardens featured painstakingly

raked gravel, flowering moss, paving stones positioned along a path, ponds where colourful carp swam, pines with twisted shapes, and delicate bridges. Japanese bridges inspired the French Impressionist painter Claude Monet, who had one built in his garden at Giverny and used it in his paintings.


Traditional House

Intricate wooden brackets without nails supported roofs made of tiles, boards, or thatch. Only natural materials were used. The traditional Japanese house’s boldness, simplicity, and harmony with its surroundings influenced the great international architects of the 20th century, like Frank Lloyd Wright.


Convertible Space

With its sliding partitions, removable panels, and folding screens, the house could be rearranged for different activities at different times of day. Furniture was limited to pieces that were easy to move: low tables, lamps, and cotton-filled mattresses called futons that were put away during the day and rolled out at night.


Modern Houses

Today, most houses in Japan are built of concrete because it is quick, easy, and inexpensive. This also saves the forests of Japan, which prevent erosion and landslides caused by heavy rains.



The House on the Waterfall
The great American architect Frank Lloyd Wright is known for his daring designs. In 1936, he built a house in Mill Run, Pennsylvania, called Fallingwater, which is world-famous. Its slabs of reinforced concrete are suspended over a natural waterfall. The roofs and terraces stretch out horizontally into the forest. When it came time to free the concrete from its casings, the workers were afraid that the whole house would collapse. Then the architect himself grabbed a pickax and removed the wooden supports.The house held fast!
2. Choose the correct answer.

1. Based on paragraph 1, what does the description of the paper houses most suggest about the people who lived in them?

a. They based their designs on historical buildings.

b. They adapted their designs to deal with nature.

c. They were unable to get sturdy building materials.

d. They were trying to copy buildings from other places.

2. According to the selection, what was true about Japanese gardens?

a. The gardens were used as places of worship.

b. The gardens were used as a way to escape the tiny house.

c. The gardens included many beautiful details.

d. The gardens included plants that could survive in cold weather.

3. What is the most likely reason the selection includes a description of Fallingwater?

a. Fallingwater was built with paper walls like a Japanese paper house.

b. The architect of Fallingwater was inspired by Japanese design.

c. The architect of Fallingwater was Japanese.

d. Fallingwater had Japanese gardens.

4. Based on paragraph 10, why was Frank Lloyd Wright’s design for Fallingwater considered “daring”?

a. The house was built in an unusual setting.

b. The house was built to look like an old house.

c. The house was built using expensive materials.

d. The house was built so that the rooms could be rearranged easily.

5. How is the information in the selection mainly organized?

a. By topic with supporting details.

b. By explaining causes and effects.

c. By the order in which events happened.

d. By describing problems and their solutions.

6. Read the sentences from paragraph 2.

According to Japanese custom, visitors must remove their shoes when they enter any home, even modern ones. This tradition helps keep the house clean and preserves the delicate tatami.

7.Which word in the sentences helps the reader understand the word tradition?

a. custom.

b. remove.

c. modern.

d. delicate.

8. Read the sentence from paragraph 4.

Walls made of special strong paper mounted on a wooden frame provided privacy while allowing light to enter the house.

9.Based on the sentence, the word privacy refers to preventing other people from

a. admiring the house.

b. damaging the house.

c. seeing into the house.

d. stealing from the house.

THE BOAT OF MY DREAMS
The best boat design should combine old and new, says Tom Cunliffe. And he put it into practice in his own craft, ‘The Westerman’.
1. Read the magazine article.
This week, the Summer Boat Show in London is resplendent with fine yachts, bristling with new technology. Nearly all are descendants of the hull-shape revolution that took place 25 years ago. By contrast, my own lies quietly on a tidal creek off the south coast. She was designed last year but, seeing her, you might imagine her to be 100 years old and think that her owner must be some kind of lost-soulromantic.

1. __________________________________________________________________.

It has to be said, however, that despite being an indispensable tool in current design methods and boat-building practice, sophisticated technology frequently insulates crews from the harsh realities of maritime life. These are often the very realities they hoped to rediscover by going to sea in the first place.



2.___________________________________________________________________

The occasional battle with flapping canvas is surely part of a seaman’s life. And for what purpose should we abandon common sense and move our steering positions from the security of the aft end to some vulnerable perch half-way to the bow? The sad answer is that this creates a cabin like that of an ocean liner, with space for a bed larger than the one at home.



3. __________________________________________________________________.

Her sails were heavy, and she had no pumped water, no electricity to speak of, no fridge, no central heating, no winches, and absolutely no electronics, especially in the navigation department, yet she was the kindest, easiest boat that I have ever sailed at sea.



4. __________________________________________________________________.

The Westerman has never disappointed me. Although Nigel Irens, the designer, and Ed

Burnett, his right-hand man, are adept with computer-assisted design programs, Irens

initially drew this boat on a paper napkin, and only later transferred his ideas to the computer. After this had generated a set of lines, he carved a model, just as boatyards did in the days of sail. Together we considered the primary embryonic vessel, then fed the design back into the electronic box for modification.



5. __________________________________________________________________.

Her appearance is ageless, her motion at sea is a pleasure and her accommodation, much of it in reclaimed pitch pine, emanates an atmosphere of deep peace. Maybe this is because she was drawn purely as a sailing craft, without reference to any furniture we might put into her. That is the well-tried method of the sea.



6. __________________________________________________________________.

Constructed in timber treated with a penetrating glue, she is totally impervious to water. Thus she has all the benefits of a glass fibre boat yet looks like, feels like and sails like the real thing.


2. Choose the most suitable paragraph from the list A – G for each part (1 – 6) of the article. There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use.
A. It’s not that I’m suggesting that sailors should go back to enduring every hardship. It’s always been important to me that my boats have a coal stove for warmth and dryness and cosy berths for sleeping. But why go cruising at all if every sail sets and furls itself?
B. Back on land, however, it is a sad fact that the very antiquity of classic boats means

that they need a lot of looking after. When I had a bad injury to my back, I realised that

my 15-year love affair with her had to end. Searching for a younger replacement produced no credible contenders, so I decided to build a new boat from scratch.
C. In her timeless serenity, she is the living proof that it works; that there is no need to

follow current fashions to find satisfaction, and that sometimes it pays to listen to the lessons of history.


D. The next version was nearly right and by the time the final one appeared, the form was perfect. The completed boat has now crossed the North Atlantic and has won four out of her first six racing starts.
E. At the same time, having lived aboard an ancient wooden beauty in the early seventies, it’s easier to understand more of this area of the mechanics. My designer, for example, knows more about the ways of a boat on the sea than anyone I can think of.
F. Perhaps I am, though I doubt it. This boat has benefited from all the magic of old fashioned boat design, but it would have been a much harder job without the advances of modern know-how.
G. For me a boat should always be a boat and not a cottage on the water. When I bought an earlier boat, Hirta, in which I circumnavigated Britain for a TV race series, the previous owner observed that she had every comfort, but no luxury. During my long relationship with her, Hirta taught me how wise he was.

UNIT 5 FOOD AND COOKING

Level A 2

EATING OUT
1. Four people are talking about eating out.
1. The last time I went to a restaurant was about 2 months ago. My wife and I wanted to celebrate our wedding anniversary with a good meal so we went to an expensive Italian restaurant in downtown Lisbon. We both had pasta to start and for the main course my wife ordered a steak and I chose fish. For dessert we both ate chocolate cake topped with fresh cream. Delicious!
2. I went to a restaurant yesterday evening with my sister's children. It wasn't very expensive and the menu was very limited. We all had a burger and French fries, and drank cola. It wasn't very good.
3. My boyfriend loves spicy food so this restaurant was perfect. The waiters were all really friendly and polite, and they played traditional sitar music which was very relaxing. The menu offered vegetarian dishes as well as meat dishes served with rice and a sauce – it depended on how hot you wanted it! I chose a mild beef curry but my boyfriend had a lamb 'vindaloo' – he also drank 2 liters of water!!
4. My class at the university went there last weekend. It's a very popular type of restaurant in my country. It generally offers one type of food (a kind of bread with cheese and tomato sauce) which you then choose what ingredients to add on top of it. I asked for ham and mushrooms on mine and my classmates each had something different so we could taste a piece of each person's meal.
2. Answer each question with a paragraph number (1 – 4).


In which text


1. did the person go there for a special occasion?




2. did the person visit an Indian restaurant?




3. did the person eat pizza?




4. did the person eat fast food?




5. did someone eat seafood?




6. did the person talk about the atmosphere of the restaurant?




7. Which restaurant was cheap?




8. didn't the person enjoy their meal?




9. did someone eat a very hot dish?




10. did the person have a vegetarian meal?





THE DINNER PARTY
1. Read the story by N. Monsarrat.

Thirty years ago I was fifteen. My uncle Octavian was then (in 1925) a very rich man. He was a charming host whose villa on the Cote d’Azur was a meeting place of the rich, and he was a very hospitable man, until January 3, 1925.

There was nothing special about that day in the life of my uncle Octavian, except that it was his fifty-fifth birthday. As usual on such a day he was giving a dinner party, for twelve people. All of them were old friends; two of them, indeed, where what they call them “old flames”. It was exciting for me to be in such company, which included besides the two “old flames”, and their husbands, a newspaper proprietor and his American wife; a recent prime-minister of France and a well-known statesman of post-war Germany, and a Habsburg prince and princess.

At that age, you will guess, I was dazzled. Even today, 30 years later, one may fairly admit that the company was distinguished. But I should also stress that they were all old and intimate friends of my uncle Octavian.

Towards the end of a wonderful dinner, when the servants had left, my uncle leaned forward to have a look at a beautiful diamond ring on the princess's hand. She turned her hand gracefully towards my uncle.

Across the table, the newspaper proprietor leant across and said: "May I also have a look, Therese?" She smiled and nodded. Then she took off the ring and held it out to him. "It was my grandmother's", she said. "I have not worn it for many years. It is said to have once belonged to Genghis Khan."

There were exclamations of surprise. The ring was passed from hand to hand. For a moment it was in my hand. Then I passed it on to my next-door neighbour. As I turned away again, I thought I saw her pass it on. At least I was almost sure I saw her.

It was some twenty minutes later when the princess stood up and said: "Before we leave you, may I have my ring back?"

There was a pause, while each of us looked expectantly at his neighbour. Then there was silence.

When no one answered her, and the silence continued, I still thought it could only be a joke, and that one of us – probably the prince himself – would produce the ring with a laugh. But when nothing happened at all, I knew that the rest of the night would be awful.

I am sure you know what followed. There was the awkwardness of the guests – all of them old friends. There was the fact that no one would meet anyone else’s eye. The guests overturned the chairs, examined the carpet and then the whole room.

The ring had vanished.

No servants had entered the room. No one had left it for a moment. The thief was one of us, one of my uncle Octavian's old friends.

I remember it was the French cabinet minister who wanted to be searched, indeed, he had already started to turn out his pockets, before my uncle held up his hand and stopped him.

Uncle Octavian’s face was pale when he said: "There will be no searching. Not in my house. You are all my friends. The ring can only be lost. If we do not find it" – he bowed towards the princess – "I will make amends myself."

My uncle Octavian remained true to his words that no one was to be searched. I myself went to England, ad school, a few days later, I was very glad to leave the place. I couldn’t bear the sight of my uncle’s face and the knowledge of his overturned world. All that he was left with, among the ruins of his way of life, was a question mark: which of his friends was the thief?

I do not know my uncle “made amends”. I know that, to my family’s surprise, he was rather poor when died. He died, in fact, a few weeks ago, and that’s why I feel I can tell the story.

It would be wrong to say that he died a broken man, but he did die a very sad man who never gave a single lunch or dinner party for the last thirty years of his life.


2. Choose the correct answer.

1. According to the text

a. the princess showed the ring unwillingly

b. the nephew of uncle Octavian was the last person to hold the ring.

c. the princess never took the ring off.

d. it was expected that the prince would make the ring appear from somewhere.

2. The day was special because …

a. the host of villa was given a party.

b. a Habsburg princess was among the guests.

c. it was Octavian’s birthday.

d. a diamond ring was stolen.

3. The word “proprietor” may be best replaced with …

a. scribbler.

b. owner.

c. reviewer.

d. sponsor.

4. Everything is true, except all of the guests …

a. felt ill at ease

b. averted their eyes

c. were turned out.

d. felt the tension in the room.

5. The phrase “old flame” is closest in meaning to …

a. a silly and annoying old person.

b. a woman who has never been married and is now no longer young.

c. a person who has been in prison many times.

d. a former mistress.

6. The hardest thing for Octavian, in fact, was …

a. to overturn his outlook.

b. to bear the fact that one of his friends was a thief.

c. to permit the guests to be searched in his house.

d. “to make amends”.

HOW TO SAVE THE PLANET (AND YOURSELF)
1. Read the text.

GIY stands for grow it yourself and is about a new fashion for growing your own food. There are a lot of reasons why growing your own food is a good idea.



1.___________________________________________________________________. Your carbon footprint is the quantity of carbon dioxide gas, or CO2, you make go into the atmosphere. Too much CO2, causes global warming and climate change. Food in supermarkets travels a long way in ships and lorries which produce a lot of CO2. When you buy food from a supermarket, you need to ask, “How many food miles does it have?”

2.___________________________________________________________________. If you buy as much food as you can in season from your region, you help save the planet. If you grow as many vegetables as you can at home, then you are helping a lot more because you use a lot less water.

Vegetables you grow yourself are also good for your body because they contain a lot more minerals, nutrients and antioxidants than supermarket vegetables and they don't contain any chemicals such as fungicides, insecticides or chemical fertilizers either.



3. _____________________________________________________________. If you GIY, you learn a lot about plants and farming and it can be very useful for teaching children about nature and where food comes from too.

How much money can you save? To begin with, seeds are a lot cheaper to buy than vegetables. Then, there are two ways to save even more. Firstly, plant the most expensive vegetables such as leeks. Secondly, plant the most productive. One courgette plant produces so many courgettes that you can give a lot of them to friends and neighbours, which makes you very popular.



4.___________________________________________________________________. Herbs are expensive to buy so you can never grow too much basil, mint, parsley, rosemary or thyme.

5. ___________________________________________________.

Don't worry if you don't have much space. To GIY, you don't even need a garden. You can use pots on your balcony for growing aubergines, broad beans, peppers and tomatoes.



6. __________________________________________________________. In that case you can plant endives, lettuce, peas, radicchio and spinach.

Basically, growing your own vegetables is a win-win situation. You are richer, you have a healthier planet, a healthier social life and a healthier body and mind.


2. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list A – G for each part (1 – 6) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A. Your vegetables are also the freshest and the tastiest you can get.

B. What's more, don't worry if your space doesn't get much sun.

C. Also, buying vegetables grown in heated greenhouses increase your carbon footprint a lot.

D. Growing your own vegetables is both fun and rewarding.

E. Experts say it is best to buy cheap vegetables like onions and potatoes directly from local farmers.

F. GIY cuts down your carbon footprint.

G. Cucumbers, green beans, peas, raspberries, strawberries and of course tomatoes are great too and they are all very easy to grow.

Level B 1
FOOD, GLORIOUS FOOD
We asked some people to tell us about their eating habits.
1. Read an article in which people talk about their eating habits.

A. Anne
I like my food, though when it comes to being in the kitchen I’m a bit like a fish out of water. I can manage omelettes, but that’s about as far as it goes. Anyway, who needs culinary expertise when there’s the old microwave? Pop your dish in the oven and two minutes later it’s ready to be served. That’s what I call cooking. I don’t know what I’d do without it. I’d probably be having a takeaway most nights, which would undoubtedly cost the earth. I much prefer staying in.
B. Beatrice
They say you are what you eat, so I try and keep an eye on my diet. Although I’m an accountant, I actually graduated as a nutritionist, so I know my stuff. I’m no fanatic but

I think it’s crucial to avoid eating too much red meat and processed foods because of the risks involved. I’m also keen on using olive oil and I’m a big fan of Mediterranean cuisine in general. Last year we went to the south of France. The fish we had there was absolutely fantastic.


C. Clive
I wouldn’t say that I was difficult to please. I like my meat and two vegetables just like my father and his father before him. I’m not into all these recent fashions. Organic food, low cholesterol dishes and the like all pass me by. My wife, on the other hand, is fond of oriental cooking like Chinese, Thai and even Japanese sushi. She keeps asking me to give it a try but I’m hardly the adventurous type, if you know what I mean. I’ll be sticking to my sausages, mashed potato and peas.
D. David
I don’t believe in eating to live. I think we should live to eat. That’s really been the guiding principle of my career. I’m very fortunate in that not everybody has the opportunity to sample wonderful creations virtually every day. Take this evening, for example, I’ll be dining in one of the most exclusive seafood restaurants in this part of Europe. They’ve invested a lot of money in their enterprise and will be hoping for a good review from me.
E. Emily
As a student, I couldn’t stand cooking, and was pretty useless at it. I’d nearly always eat in the canteen. I was also very conservative in my choice of food. However, circumstances can soon alter the way you see things. Nowadays I consider it as a kind of therapy for escaping my job as a business executive and all the stress of the rush hour. I’m particularly keen on Italian dishes. I’d quite like to open up a really top class restaurant one day. I think that would really have to be my ambition.
F. Frank

I simply love everything connected with food. I’ve never been against trying new things and maybe I’ve been a bit relaxed over what I eat. Two weeks ago, though, I was diagnosed as a migraine sufferer, which means I have been obliged to look carefully at my approach to food. Dairy products were the first thing to go, and I’m a big cheese fan, so it’s been something of a challenge. I’ve also been told that it might be best if I cut out the chocolate as well. At least I’ll be saving some money.


2. Choose from the people A – F. Write the letter next to each extract on the right.


Which person


1. likes eating fast food?




2. has a job connected with food?




3. finds cooking relaxing?




4. studied a subject connected to food?




5. says that they are not good at cooking?




6. had to change their diet for health reasons?




7. says that food from restaurants is expensive?




8. has the chance to eat in first-class restaurants?




9. doesn’t like trying new kinds of food?




10. says it’s important to eat healthy food?




11. eats at home more than they used to?




12. is not interested in healthy food?




13. mentions the use of technology in cooking?





THE AMERICAN PEPPER
1. Read the story.

"Mummy! Mummy!" shouted little Murna racing from the front door through to the kitchen. "There's a parcel. The postman's brought a parcel!"

Her mother, Savni, looked at her in surprise. She had no idea who could have sent them a parcel. Maybe it was a mistake. She hurried to the door to find out. Sure enough, the postman was there, holding a parcel about the size of a small brick.

"From America, madam," he said. "See! American stamps."

It was true. In the top right-hand corner of the brown paper parcel were three strange-looking stamps, showing a man's head. The package was addressed to Savni, in big, clear black letters.

"Well, I suppose it must be from Great-Aunt Pasni," said Savni to herself, as the postman went on his way down the street, whistling. "Although it must be twenty years since we heard anything from her. I thought she would have been dead by now."

Savni's husband Jornas and her son Arinas were just coming in from the garden, where Murna had run to tell them about the parcel. "Well, open it then!" said Arinas impatiently. "Let's see what's inside!"

Setting the parcel down in the middle of the table, Savni carefully began to tear open the paper. Inside, there was a large silver container with a hinged lid, which was taped shut. There was also a letter.

"What is it? What is it?" demanded Murna impatiently. "Is it a present?"

"I have no idea," said Savni in confusion. "I think it must be from Great-Aunt Pasni. She went to America almost thirty years ago now. But we haven't heard from her in twenty years. Perhaps the letter will tell us." She opened the folded page cautiously, then looked up in dismay. "Well, this is no help!" she said in annoyance. "It's written in English! How does she expect us to read English? We're poor people, we have no education. Maybe Pasni has forgotten her native language, after thirty years in America."

"Well, open the pot, anyway," said Jornas. "Let's see what's inside."

Cautiously, Savni pulled the tape from the neck of the silver pot, and opened the lid. Four heads touched over the top of the container, as their owners stared down inside.

"Strange," said Arinas. "All I see is powder." The pot was about one-third full of a kind of light-grey powder.

"What is it?" asked Murna, mystified.

"We don't know, darling," said Savni, stroking her daughter's hair. "What do you think?" Murna stared again into the pot.

"I think it's coffee," she announced, finally. "American coffee."

"It's the wrong colour for coffee, darling," said Jornas thoughtfully. "But maybe she's on the right track. It must be some kind of food." Murna, by now, had her nose right down into the pot. Suddenly, she lifted her head and sneezed loudly.

"Id god ub by doze," she explained.

"That's it!" said Arinas. "It must be pepper! Let me try some." Dipping a finger into the powder, he licked it. "Yes," he said, "it's pepper all right. Mild, but quite tasty. It's American pepper."

"All right," said Savni, "we'll try it on the stew tonight. We'll have American-style stew!"

That evening, the whole family agreed that the American pepper had added a special extra taste to their usual evening stew. They were delighted with it. By the end of the week, there was only a teaspoonful of the grey powder left in the silver container. Then Savni called a halt.

"We're saving the last bit for Sunday. Dr. Haret is coming to dinner, and we'll let him have some as a special treat. Then it will be finished."

The following Sunday, the whole family put on their best clothes, ready for dinner with Dr. Haret. He was the local doctor, and he had become a friend of the family many years before, when he had saved Arinas's life after an accident. Once every couple of months, Savni invited the doctor for dinner, and they all looked forward to his entertaining stories of his youth at the university in the capital.

During dinner, Savni explained to the doctor about the mysterious American pepper, the last of which she had put in the stew they were eating, and the letter they could not read.

"Well, give it to me, give it to me!" said the doctor briskly. "I speak English! I can translate it for you."

Savni brought the letter, and the family waited, fascinated, as the doctor began to translate.

"Dear Savni: you don't know me, but I am the son of your old Great-Aunt Pasni. She never talked much to us about the old country, but in her final illness earlier this year, she told us that after her death, she wanted her ashes to be sent back home to you, so that you could scatter them on the hills of the country where she was born. My mother died two weeks ago, and her funeral and cremation took place last week. I am sending her ashes to you in a silver casket. Please do as she asked, and spread them over the ground near where she was born. Your cousin, George Leary."
2. Choose the correct answer.

1. Where does this story take place?

a. America.

b. Arinas.

c. India.

d. The text doesn't say.

2. How was the parcel wrapped?

a. In brown paper.

b. In silver paper.

c. In grey paper.

d. In tape.

3. Who was Savni?

a. A little girl.

b. The Great-Aunt.

c. The mother of the family.

d. The son of the family.

4. Why don't the family read the letter?

a. They are too impatient to look in the container.

b. It is addressed to the doctor.

c. It is in English.

d. It is missing.

5. What does Murna think is in the pot?

a. Dust.


b. Ashes.

c. Coffee.

d. Pepper.

6. Why does Arinas think that the powder is pepper?

a. It tastes very hot.

b. It makes Murna sneeze.

c. It is written on the pot.

d. The letter says so.

7. What does the family do with the powder?

a. They keep it to give to the doctor.

b. They send it back to America.

c. They make drinks with it.

d. They put it on their food.

8. Why does Savni save the last bit of the powder?

a. As a souvenir.

b. For Dr. Haret.

c. To analyse it.

d. To spread it on the hills.

9. How does Dr. Haret solve the mystery?

a. He analyses the powder.

b. He recognizes the powder.

c. He is a friend of Pasni.

d. He translates the letter.

10. What was really in the pot?

a. Coffee.

b. Great-Aunt Pasni.

c. Dust.


d. Special American pepper.
TONGUE TRICKSTER
Never mind the tongue twister – here’s the tongue trickster. Frank Parsons reports on the craze for a strange type of fruit.
1. Read a magazine article about a type of fruit. Seven sentences have been removed from the text.
Imagine drinking a glass of pure, freshly-squeezed lemon juice with nothing added. It’s enough to turn your stomach.

1. __________________________________________________________________.

I watch as one-by-one they down the drink, tentative at first, and then smiling broadly as they declare, “It tastes just like grandma’s lemonade.”

Fifty or so people crowd around a table on the rooftop terrace of Larry’s small but swish apartment. I edge my way forward and arrive at the table that positively groans with the array of food piled high.

2. __________________________________________________________________.

My host appears at my shoulder, and says, “Here, have this.” This turns out to be a small red berry about the size of a blueberry, but slightly elongated, the shape of a coffee bean.

He looks at the expression on my face. “It’s known as the miracle fruit. Just put it in your mouth,” he instructs, “and chew it slightly to separate the pulp from its seed.

3. __________________________________________________________________.

I obey his command and then discreetly spit the remains into my handkerchief while his glance is averted.

“Done?” he asks, turning back to me. I nod. He grabs a glass of the lemon juice from a passing waiter and offers it to me. “Now drink.” I take a small sip, and close my eyes. The guests are right.

4. __________________________________________________________________.

My host states knowingly I have experienced first-hand the phenomenon of the Synsepalum Dulcificum, or the Miracle Fruit. This small berry has the amazing effect of causing bitter or sour foods to taste as sweet as sugar candy.



5. __________________________________________________________________.

When it comes into contact with acidic foods, like vinegar, it starts to behave like a sweetener. A native fruit of West Africa, the fruit was discovered by western explorers around 1725.



6. __________________________________________________________________.

Left uncultivated, the miracle fruit grows in bushes reaching six metres in height. It produces crops twice yearly, usually after the rainy season, and has attractive white flowers.

Despite being around for centuries it is only in recent years that the miracle fruit has been cultivated as a potential sweetener.

7. __________________________________________________________________.

Not only that – the fruit can aid patients receiving medical treatment that may leave an unpleasant taste in the mouth.


2. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list A – H for each part (1 – 7) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A. These range from wedges of fruit, strong cheeses and pickles to plates of Brussel sprouts.

B. It’s like I’ve been transported back to childhood, sitting on the porch with Grandma and her delicious homemade pop.

C. According to scientists the result happens because of a protein called miraculin.

D. There has been some albeit limited interest from the diet food industry.

E. Then push it around your mouth like you’d do with a piece of gum for about sixty seconds.

F. Yet that is what the guests of host, Larry Walters, are given on their arrival at one of his tasting parties in an upmarket district of New York.
G. Not everyone is a fan of the berry’s strange effect, however.

H. They first noticed its distinctive property when they saw local people chewing the berry before a meal.
Level B 2
PHILIPS SANDWICH MAKER
1. Read a text from an instruction manual. Parts of the text are mixed.

A. Open the sandwich maker after 2-3 minutes and check whether the toasted sandwich is sufficiently “brown”. The cooking time required to obtain crisp brown sandwiches depends on the type of bread, fillings and your personal taste. Use a non-metallic utensil (e.g. wooden spatula) to remove the toasted sandwich from the sandwich maker. Do not use sharp or abrasive kitchen utensils.

B. Unplug the sandwich maker and let it cool down before cleaning. Clean the baking plates with a damp cloth or sponge. Avoid water running into the appliance. Never immerse the appliance into water.

C. Prepare the ingredients for your toasted sandwich. For each sandwich you need two slices of bread and a suitable filling. You can refer to the suggested recipes. To obtain an even golden brown result, you can slightly butter the side of the bread in contact with the plate. Lay the slices of bread with the buttered side on the lower cooking plate, place your filling and cover with the second slices of bread with buttered sides up. You can toast only one sandwich if you wish. For optimal result, fillings should be placed well within the sandwich slices.

D. The sandwich maker has a cord storage feature on the base of the appliance.

E. The appliance can be stored in a vertical position.

F. Remove the wooden spatula from its protective covering. Heat up the hotplates slightly. Rub the stick into the dirty areas.

G. Plug in the sandwich maker and heat up the plates until the green Ready To Cook pilot light goes off. The sandwich maker is ready for use.

H. Lower the upper cooking plate carefully onto the bread until the sandwich maker is tightly clamped.
2. Match the instructions A – H with the pictures (1 – 7). There is one extra
Каталог: bitstream -> edoc
edoc -> Учебная программа учреждения высшего образования по учебной дисциплине для специальности 1-25 81 02 «Экономика» 2014
edoc -> Вопросы к экзамену по курсу «Психология личности»
edoc -> Методические рекомендации по написанию работ
edoc -> II. Содержание дисциплины
edoc -> Тема Экономическая психология как наука
edoc -> Тематика курсовых работ по курсу «Психология труда»
edoc -> Рефератов по дисциплине «Психология рекламы»
edoc -> Вопросы к экзамену по дисциплине «Психология рекламы»
edoc -> Дифференциальная психология


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