М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова


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SUPERFOODS: PROTECT YOUR BODY BY EATING RIGHT
1. Read a news story by San Francisco CBS 5 Dr. Kim Mulvihill.

In North Beach in San Francisco, where some pretty super food gets served every night.

“Absolutely very super food! “ “I really like the taste” are comments by two diners.

But we're not just talking about taste. Research now shows some foods, including tomatoes, onions, garlic, and olive oil – are among the superfoods. Superfoods are packed with powerful chemicals that may offer your body great protection against chronic disease –

“Including cancer, obesity, and heart disease. Vibrantly coloured red yellow orange and green all giving you different types of phytochemicals!”

Natalie Ledesma is a registered dietician at U.C.S.F. She says compounds found in superfoods – called phytochemicals – can reduce the risk of cancer, boost the immune system, and even protect the heart. She showed us what everyone should try to eat each week for optimal health.

On her shopping list? Herbs!

“Dark green ones (herbs), like rosemary and thyme. And any intensely coloured spice, like turmeric or red pepper. Both of those have anti-inflammatory properties.”

Turmeric may reduce the risk of leukemia, skin, and liver cancers. Hot peppers may reduce the risk of colon, stomach, and rectal cancers. Also on the list: green veggies, but not just any green veggies.

"Brussel sprouts are part of the cruciferous vegetable family that has significant anti-cancer properties," said Ledesma. "That family also has a very favourable effect on hormone metabolism."

Other cruciferous veggies include cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. And don't forget the tomato.

"It is probably the best source of lycopene, which is one of the phytochemicals that has shown significant anticancer properties, especially with prostate and potentially lung and breast cancer as well," said Ledesma.

As for fruit, citrus contains Vitamin C, limonoids, and phenols, which inactivate cancer cells and strengthen the immune system. Cantaloupes, mangos, and carrots contain cancer-fighting carotenoids. And berries are bursting with flavonoids and ellagic acid – antioxidants that protect against cancer, ulcers, and viruses. Natalie recommends organic.

"Organic fruits and veggies have shown not only to have lower pesticide toxicities and lower pesticide levels, but also now have been shown to have higher phytochemical content," she said.

Don't forget the fatty fish or flaxseed – both are excellent sources of Omega Three fatty acids that inhibit the growth of cancer cells and boost the immune system, olive oil, which may reduce breast, prostate, or colon cancer, and soy.

"Soy has protective effects for heart disease as well as osteoporosis, potentially," Ledesma said.

And finally onions, garlic, and shallots. They may protect the heart, fight cancer, and help with asthma.
2. Choose the correct answer.

1. Phytochemicals may

a. reduce the risk of cancer.

b. boost the immune system.

c. protect against heart disease.

d. all of the above.

2. Which of the following is not a superfood, according to the article?

a. Tomatoes.

b. Onions.

c. Milk.


d. Garlic.

3. Turmeric is a(n)

a. spice.

b. herb.

c. green vegetable.

d. fruit.

4. Which foods contain carotenoids?

a. Citrus and cantaloupes.

b. Cauliflower and cantaloupes.

c. Citrus and berries.

d. Mangos and carrots.

5. How do omega three fatty acids help the body?

a. They have anti-inflammatory properties.

b. They inhibit the growth of cancer cells.

c. They reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

d. They prevent osteoporosis.

6. Which green vegetable is the healthiest, according to Ms. Ledesma?

a. Beans.

b. Broccoli.

c. Lettuce.

d. Cucumber.

7. Brussel sprouts are a kind of __________

a. herb.


b. spice.

c. vegetable.

d. fruit.

8. To reduce your risk of catching a viral infection such as a cold, Ms. Ledesma recommend eating __________

a. turmeric.

b. brussel sprouts.

c. cantaloupe.

d. berries.

9. Organic fruits and vegetables

a. have higher levels of lycopene.

b. have higher levels of phytochemicals.

c. both (a) and (b).

d. only (b).

10. According to Ms. Ledesma, you do not need to eat _______ to be healthy.

a. green herbs

b. cruciferous vegetables

c. fish or flaxseed

d. meat

MICROWAVING
1. Read the text. Six sentences or parts of sentences have been removed.
Microwaving is a method of cooking where food is bombarded by microwaves, usually within an appliance called a microwave oven which excite the water, fat and sugar molecules, thereby heating (cooking) both the outside and center of the food at the same time. 1. _____________________________________________________. (A common myth is that a microwave oven cooks from the center of the food outward. This appears to happen because heat generated at the surface escapes more readily from the surface of the food into the surrounding air.) One advantage of microwaving is that small amounts of food can be heated very quickly, making it useful for reheating leftovers.

The disadvantage is that food which is microwaved does not undergo some of the chemical reactions, such as browning, which makes the food visually attractive. Primitive microwave ovens often do not cook evenly, leading to a concern that bacteria easily killed by more traditional cooking methods may survive the quick cooking time in "cold spots", though the food item as a whole is cooked to a safe average temperature.



2. _____________________________________________________. Some high-end microwave ovens are combined with a convection oven which basically cook the food using microwave and hot air simultaneously to achieve both the fast cooking time and browning effect.

3. ______________________________________________________________. However microwave ovens are used in some fast food chains and special microwave bags are available for cooking fowl or large joints of meat.

Professional chefs generally recommend using microwaves for a limited set of tasks, including: melting fats (such as butter) and chocolate, cooking grains like oatmeal and grits, cooking rice, thawing frozen meats and vegetables before cooking by other methods and quickly reheating already-cooked foods.

Using a microwave to boil water is potentially dangerous, due to superheating. In a microwave, water can be raised quickly to a temperature above the boiling point before major bubbles form, especially if it is purified and in a very clean glass vessel. 4. ____________________________________________________________. This effect is rare, even for scientists who try to deliberately recreate it, and any seed whatsoever for boiling is likely to prevent the problem. Boiling water with, for instance, a teabag already in it will prevent any dangers by providing a seed, as will using a mug that is not perfectly clean.

The risk greatly increases when water has already been boiled once in the same container. This situation can occur if the user of the oven boiled the water once, forgot about it, then came back later to boil it again. The first time the water boils, the seed bubbles (microscopic bubbles of air around which larger steam bubbles grow) are used up and largely eliminated from the water as it cools down. When the water is heated again, the lack of seed bubbles causes superheating, and a risk of a steam explosion when the water's surface is disturbed.

Placing something in the water before heating can mostly alleviate this risk. If you are planning to mix something with the water, say tea or hot chocolate, adding it before heating will insure that the water boils. Otherwise, placing a wood object, for instance a chopstick, in the water before heating will also work.

Care should be taken when removing heated water from a microwave. Make sure that the hands are protected from possible liquid boil-over, place the container on a level, heat-proof surface and stir liquid with a warm spoon. Also, never add powdered substances (such as instant coffee or cocoa mix) to the container taken from the microwave, due to the addition of all those seed bubbles and the potential for violent, spontaneous boiling. 5. _______________________________________.

Metal objects, such as metal utensils, in a microwave oven can lead to dangerous situations. Metals do not absorb microwaves effectively. Instead, metals reflect microwaves, thereby preventing the latter from reaching the food.

6. __________________________________________________________________. Thin metal layers, such as metal foil and mugs with metal trim can melt or burn due to the strong electrical currents that are generated in metal objects. However, small solid metal objects, such as spoons, in combination with a large amount of absorbing food or liquid, normally do not lead to problems.
2. Choose from the sentences A – G the one which fits each gap (1 – 6). Remember, there is one extra sentence you do not need to use.

A. Using a microwave for cooking a large food mass is difficult due to limited penetration of microwaves.

B. This can be overcome by leaving the food to stand for a few minutes when cooking is completed.

C. It is advised that the water should be poured slowly into another container that already contains the powder.

D. In this way, buying a microwave oven with a turntable ensure the food is cooked throughout.

E. Conversely the microwaves do not heat glass, ceramic and plastic containers.

F. If the microwaves are not absorbed inside the oven, the oven can be damaged by electrical arcs and overheating of the microwave source.

G. When water in that state is disturbed, it can suddenly and unexpectedly boil violently.
UNIT 6 SHOPPING


Level A 2

READING CLOTHING LABELS

1. Look at the clothing labels.

2. Answer the questions.



Garment A Garment B


1. Which garment can be washed in the washing machine?

* Garment A.

* Garment B.

* Both garments.


2. Is it OK to wash the jeans in hot water?

* No, it isn’t.

* Yes, it is.

* No information given.


3. Which garment is larger?


* Garment A.

* Garment B.

* Both garments are the same size.


4. Which garment was made in the United States?

* Garment A.

* Garment B.

* Both garments.


5. Which garment must be dry-cleaned?

* Garment A.

* Garment B.

* Both garments.


6. Is it OK to put the dress in a dryer?


* No, it isn’t.

* Yes, it is.

* No information given.


7. Which store sells these two garments?

* Wal-Mart.

* Target.

* No information given.


8. Which garment is made of a natural fabric?

* Garment A.

* Garment B.

* Both garments.


9. Which garment is made of a synthetic fabric?

* Garment A.

* Garment B.

* Both garments.


10. Which garment can not be bleached?

* Garment A.

* Garment B.

* Neither garment.


HOME COMFORT DIVISION

ONE-YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY




Introduction: A humidifier is a machine that puts water into the air in a house. It is a good machine to have in a place like Colorado where the air is very dry. In the box with the humidifier is an instruction book and this Warranty paper.
The Warranty
The Bemis by Essick Air humidifier warranty covers defects in materials and workmanship for a period of one year from date of retail purchase. This warranty applies only to the original purchaser of the product.

Within the first 12 months from date of purchase. Essick Air will repair or replace, at its discretion, any defective part of the humidifier covered by this warranty.

This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state or province to province.

This warranty does not cover damage resulting from misuse or abuse of the humidifier, accidents or alterations to the product, commercial use or damage during shipment. Misuse includes malfunctions caused by negligence in cleaning or parts fouled with mineral deposits due to hard-water conditions. Alterations to the product include the substitution of non-Bemis by Essick Air brand components including, but not limited to, wicks.

If service becomes necessary, take or send the product to any Bemis by Essick Air service center.
2. Choose the correct answer.

1. What is a good definition for 'warranty'?

a. Product.

b. Guarantee.

c. Problems.

d. Protection.

2. What is a good definition for 'covers'?

a. Is on top of.

b. Has information about.

c. Will fix or replace.

d. Is hiding.

3. What is a good definition for 'defects'?

a. Information about the machine.

b. Parts of the machine.

c. Problems with the machine.

d. Negative effects.

4. I bought this humidifier and gave it to my cousin. My cousin used it for 2 days but then he noticed it was defective (not working). He took it to the company to ask for a refund. According to the warranty, will the company give him a refund?

a. No, because he used it for 2 days.

b. No, the warranty is good only for the person who bought the machine.

c. Yes, because it was only used for 2 days.

d. Yes, the warranty covers defects.

5. For how long does the warranty cover the humidifier?

a. 30 days.

b. 1 year.

c. forever.

d. 12 days.

6. If the machine is defective, the company will …

a. give you a new machine.

b. give you your money back.

c. repair the part that is defective.

d. apologize.

7. Check all the situations that are covered by the warranty.

a. normal use (for example, 6 hours/day in a bedroom).

b. misuse (for example, putting gasoline in the water container).

c. using it in your house.

d. commercial use (for example, using it in a big store).

e. the person who made the machine did not do it correctly.

f. abuse (for example, if you put the machine outside in the rain).

g. problems with the materials.



8. What should I do if the machine is defective?

a. Return it to the store where I bought it.

b. Take it to the Bemis service center.

c. Call the Bemis company.

d. Complain to the manager.

FAMILY FASHION
1. Read the text. Six sentences have been removed.
Zara and Robbie both work in a fashion boutique in London. But they are more than just colleagues – they are brother and sister. 1. _______________________. Their parents own the shop. Zara on Robbie: ‘We weren’t very close when we were young. I was eight years older than my brother and we used to argue a lot. Then I went to college and did a degree in fashion, and started working for my father.

2. ___________________________________________________________________.

When he left college, he said he never wanted to work with his family. He tried to go his own way. 3. _________________________________________. So about two years ago he joined me in the family shop after all!

Actually, it’s worked out brilliantly. 4. ____________________________________.

Robbie is interested in display and the look of the shop, but I decide what clothes we sell. We get on much better now, and even see each other outside of work! Our business talents are different, but we both like the same music, and love James Bond movies. 5. _______________________________________________________.

And we have fun at work, too. Once Robbie was in the basement, and I phoned down and said Madonna was in the shop looking at trousers. Of course she wasn’t, but Robbie believed me. 6. _____________________________________.

He was really angry with me at first, but then he saw the funny side of it!’


2. Choose from the sentences A – G the one which fits each gap (1 – 6). There is one extra sentence you do not need to use.

A. Sadly, things didn’t go well for him.

B. We’re good at different things.

C. In fact, it’s a family business.

D. He ran up the stairs so fast, he fell over!

E. We go to see them together, because none of our friends like them!

F. But Robbie was different.

G. I don’t like working with him

Level B 1

SHOPPING IN THE OLD TOWN OF EDINBURGH
1. Read six advertisements for shops in Edinburgh.


A. Designs on Cashmere

B. Royal Mile Pharmacy

C. Rock Sensations

Come and visit the cashmere specialists. See the usual and the unusual in cashmere. Shop in a friendly, relaxed atmosphere - no pressure to buy. Custom-made sweater service available.

Mail order catalogue too.


28 High Street, Royal Mile,

Edinburgh

Tel: 031 556 6394


Just up from John Knox's house in the High Street is the Royal Mile Pharmacy.

We specialise in Films; Toiletries; Medicine; Herbal Remedies; One Hour Film Processing

67 High Street,

Edinburgh, EH1 1SR.

Tel: 031 556 1971


A rock shop of a different kind on the Grassmarket. Rock Sensations specialises in rock'n'roll memorabilia and

novelties, recapturing the spirit of the 50s and 60s. The shop’s centrepiece is a fully

operational antique Seeburg jukebox, stocked with old Beatles and Elvis 45s.

Open Mon – Sat 9.30am - 5.30pm & 11.30am – 4.30pm Sun 108 West Bow, Edinburgh. Tel: 031 225 7710



D. The Castle Books

E. Scottish Countrywear

F. Edinburgh Woolen Mill

This family business established in 1980 has a large selection of Scottish art, children’s, travel, natural history, literature and many other subjects. Rare and second-hand books bought and sold.

Member of P.B. F.A.

Open Mon – Sat

12 noon - 5 pm.

204 Canongate,

The Royal Mile, Edinburgh,

EH8 8 DQ.

Tel: 031 556 0624



Scottish Countrywear (just a stone’s throw from the Castle). For a superb range of top quality Scottish and Celtic design in Shetland, Lambs Wool and Cashmere.

Representing Belinda Robertson, Smith & Telford and Johnstons of Elgin. We also stock a huge range of outdoor wear.

514 Castlehill, Edinburgh.

Tel: 031 226 5323.



Just below the famous Edinburgh Castle, the Edinburgh Woollen Mill offers

traditional Scottish knitwear and garments of high quality direct from our own mills.

Also a large selection of Scottish food, and gifts in a range of tartans. Natural value guaranteed!
453-455 Lawnmarket,

Edinburgh,

EH1 2NT.

Tel: 031 225 1525



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