М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова



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Contents


Preface

  1. The Concept of Business

  2. Economics

  3. Types of Companies

  4. Careers in Business

V. Management

VI. Factory Production

VII. Marketing

VIII. Advertising


Reference Literature


  1. The Concept of Business




  1. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.




exchange

обмен

corporation

ассоциация

distribution

распределение

certificate

документ, свидетельство

sale

продажа

share

акция

profit

прибыль

stockholder, shareholder

акционер

владелец акций



production

производство

expenses

затраты

conversion

переработка

entity

экономический объект, хозяйственное подразделение

dealership

местное представительство

partnership

товарищество


proprietorship

право собственности

Match










  1. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

1.business

2.profit

3.production

4.distribution

5.sale

6.surplus

a) excess of revenues over outlays and expenses in a business enterprise over a given period of time, usually a year;

b) an industrial, commercial, or professional operation; purchase and sale of goods and services;

c) the creation or manufacture for sale of goods and services with exchange value

d)the exchange of goods, property, or services for an agreed sum of money or credit;

e) a quantity or amount in excess of what is required;

f) the process of physically satisfying the demand for goods and services.




III. Read the text and give the definition of business.
Business is a word that is commonly used in many languages. Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Nowadays, the concept and activities of business have increased. One definition of business is production, distribution, and sale of goods or services for a profit. To examine this definition, let us look at its different parts.

First, production is the creation of services or processing of materials into products. Example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. Next, these products need to be moved from the plant to the marketplace. This is known as distribution. A car might be moved from a plant in Germany to a car dealership in Poland. Third is the sale of goods and services. Sale is the exchange of a product or service for money. A car is sold to someone in exchange for money.

Goods are products that people either need or want; for example, cars can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities that a person or group performs for another person or organization. For example, an auto mechanic performs a service when he repairs a car. A barber renders a service when he cuts your hair.

Business, then, is a combination of all these activities: production, distribution, and sale. However, there is another important factor, i.e., creation of profit or economic surplus. A major goal in the functioning of any business company is making a profit. Profit is the money that remains after all the expenses are paid. Creating an economic surplus or profit is, therefore, a primary goal of business activity.


IV.Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

  1. What is the traditional definition of business?

  2. Is business production, distribution and sale of goods and services for a profit?

  3. What is the creation of services or processing of materials into products?

  4. How do we call the process of moving products from the plant to the market place?

  5. Sale is the exchange of a product or service for money, isn’t it?

  6. What kind of activities are services?

  7. What is a major goal of any business company?

  8. What does a company get after all expenses are paid?


V.Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or

false (F).

1. Business is production, distribution, and sale of goods or services for a profit.

2. Production is the exchange of a product or service for money.

3. Distribution is moving from the plant to the marketplace.

4. Sale is the creation of services or processing of materials into products.

5. Services are activities that a person or group performs for another person or organization.

6. Profit is the money that remains after all the expenses are paid.
VI.Choose Russian equivalents to the following phrases.

exchange for things

a) обмен вещей;

b) обмен на вещи;

c) изменение вещей.


the creation of services

a)оказание услуг;

b)создание услуг;

c)организация услуг.


the money that remains

a) деньги оставленные;

b) деньги, которые остаются;

c) деньги, что оставят.




  1. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

  2. Retell the text according to its outline.


II. Economics

I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.
decrease уменьшать consumer потребитель

scarce недостаточный accounting бухгалтерское дело

inputs затраты employment занятие; работа

output выпуск изделий labor force рабочая сила

allocate распределять increase увеличивать


  1. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.




1.economics

2.macroeconomics

3.microeconomics

4.scarcity

5.resources

6.goods

7.employment

8. economic growth

9. price stability

a) the state achieved by monetary control, balanced budgets, etc.;

b) the branch of economics concerned with particular commodities, firms, or individuals and the economic relationships between them;

c) possessions and personal property

d) inadequate supply;

e) the social science concerned with the production and consumption of goods and services and the analysis of the commercial activities of a society;

f) the work or occupation in which a person is employed;

g) a source of economic wealth, esp. of a country (mineral, land, labor, etc.) or business enterprise (capital, equipment, personnel, etc.);

h) the branch of economics concerned with aggregates, such as national income, consumption, and investment;

i) this period characterized by rising wages, profits, and prices, full employment, and high levels of investment, trade, and other economic activity.





  1. Read the text and explain the highlighted words.

Economics is the study of how society allocates scarce resources and goods. Resources are the inputs that society uses to produce output, called goods. Resources include inputs such as labor, capital, and land. Goods include products such as food, clothing, and housing as well as services such as those provided by doctors, repairmen, and police offices. These resources and goods are considered scarce because of society's tendency to demand more resources and goods than are available.

Most resources are scarce, but some are not — for example, the air we breathe. Its price is zero. It is called a free resource. Economics, however, is mainly concerned with scarce resources and goods, as scarcity motivated the study of how society allocates resources and goods.

The term market refers to any arrangement that allows people to trade with each other. The term market system refers to the collection of all markets, also to the relationships among these markets. The study of the market system, which is the subject of economics, is divided into two main theories; they are macroeconomics and microeconomics.

Macroeconomics

The prefix macro means large, indicating that macroeconomics is concerned with the study of the market system on a large scale. Macroeconomics considers the aggregate performance of all markets in the market system and is concerned with the choices made by the large subsectors of the economy — the household sector, which includes all consumers; the business sector, which includes all firms; and the government sector, which includes all government agencies.



Microeconomics

The prefix micro means small, indicating that microeconomics is concerned with the study of the market system on a small scale.

Microeconomics considers the individual markets that make up the market system and is concerned with the choices made by small economic units such as individual consumers, individual firms, or individual government agencies.

Economic Policy

An economic policy is a course of action that is intended to influence or control the behavior of the economy. Economic policies are normally implemented and administered by the government. The goals of economic policy consist of value judgments about what economic policy should strive to achieve. While there is some disagreement about the appropriate goals of economic policy, there are three widely accepted goals including:



Economic growth: It means that the incomes of all consumers and
firms (after accounting for inflation) are increasing over time.

Full employment: It means that every member of the labor force who
wants to work is able to find work.

Price stability: It means to prevent increases in the general price level
known as inflation, as well as decreases in the general price level
known as deflation.


  1. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

    1. What is the definition of economics?

    2. Why are resources scarce?

    3. What are the two main theories of economics?

    4. What do they deal with?

    5. What are the goals of economic policy?

    6. What is inflation?




  1. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

1.Economics is the study of how society allocates scarce resources and goods.

2.Society's tendency is to demand more resources and goods than are available.

3.The term market refers to any arrangement that allows people to trade with each other.

4.Microeconomics is concerned with the study of the market system on a large scale.

5.Macroeconomics is concerned with the choices made by small economic units such as individual consumers, individual firms, or individual government agencies.

6. Economic policies are normally implemented and administered by the private sector.

7.Three widely accepted goals include labor force, inflation and the incomes of all consumers.


  1. Find Russian equivalents to the following phrases in the second column.




1.scarce resources

2.available

3.on a large scale

4.aggregate performance

5.household

6.implemented

7.value judgments

8.strive to

9.appropriate goals

10.general price level



a)в крупном масштабе

b)доступный

c)хозяйственный

d) субъективные оценки

e)недостаточные ресурсы

f)общий ценовой уровень

g)реализованный

h) стараться, пытаться

i)совокупная производительность

j)соответствующие показатели






  1. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.




  1. Retell the text according to its outline.


III. Types of Companies


  1. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.




debt

долг

bankruptcy

банкротство

assets

активы

enterprise

предприятие

liabilities

пассивы

joint venture

cовместное предприятие

proprietor

собственник

accountant

бухгалтер

pledge

закладывать

charter

устав




  1. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.




1.sole proprietorship

2.partnership

3.general partnership

4.joint venture

5.limited company

a) It is a business in which two or more companies have invested, with the intention of working together;

b) It is the legal entity having a right to issue stock certificates;

c) It is an association of two or more people involved in business under a written partnership agreement;

d) It is more often used by lawyers, doctors, dentists, and chartered accountants;

e) It means going into business for oneself.





  1. Read the text and underline advantages and disadvantages with regard to each type of companies.

The three traditional forms of business are the sole proprietorship, the partnership, and the corporation. The sole proprietorship means going into business for oneself. All one needs is some knowledge about the business, start-up capital and knowledge of regulations. The partnership is an association of two or more people involved in business under a written partnership agreement. The corporation is the legal entity having a right to issue stock certificates. The people who own such stock certificates (or shares) are called stockholders/ shareholders. They in fact own the corporation.



Sole Proprietorship

A sole proprietorship is a business owned and usually operated by a single individual. Its major characteristic is that the owner and the business are one and the same. In other words, the revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities of the sole proprietorship are the revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities of the owner. A sole proprietorship is also referred to as the proprietorship, single proprietorship, individual proprietorship, and individual enterprise.

A sole proprietorship is the oldest and most common form of ownership. Some examples include small retail stores, doctors' and lawyers' practices and restaurants.

A sole proprietorship is the easiest form of business to organize. The only legal requirements for starting such a business are a municipal license to operate a business and a registration license to ensure that two firms do not use the same name. The organization costs for these licenses are minimal.

A sole proprietorship can be dissolved as easily as it can be started. A sole proprietorship can terminate on the death of the owner, when a creditor files for bankruptcy, or when the owner ceases doing business.

A sole proprietorship offers the owner freedom and flexibility in making decisions. Major policies can be changed according to the owner's wishes because the firm does not operate under a rigid charter. Because there are no others to consult, the owner has absolute control over the use of the company's resources. As mentioned earlier, the financial condition of the firm is the same as the financial condition of the owner. Because of this situation, the owner is legally liable for all debts of the company. If the assets of the firm cannot cover all the liabilities, the sole proprietor must pay these debts from his or her own pocket. Some proprietors try to protect themselves by selling assets such as their houses and automobiles to their spouses. A sole proprietorship, dependent on its size and provision for succession, may have difficulty in obtaining capital because lenders are leery of giving money to only one person who is pledged to repay. A proprietorship has a limited life, being terminated on the death, bankruptcy, insanity, imprisonment, retirement, or whim of the owner.



Partnerships

A partnership is an unincorporated enterprise owned by two or more individuals. A partnership agreement, oral or written, expresses the rights and obligations of each partner. For example, one partner may have the financial resources to start the business while the other partner may possess the management skills to operate the firm. There are three types of partnerships: general partnerships, limited partnerships, and joint ventures. The most common form is the general partnership, often used by lawyers, doctors, dentists, and chartered accountants. Partnerships, like sole proprietorships, are easy to start up. Registration details vary by province, but usually entail obtaining a license and registering the company name. Partners' interests can be protected by formulation of an "Agreement of Partnership". This agreement specifies all the details of the partnership.

Complementary management skills are a major advantage of partnerships. Consequently partnerships are stronger entity and can attract new employees more easily than proprietorships.

The stronger entity also makes it easier for partnerships to raise additional capital. Lenders are often more willing to advance money to partnerships because all of the partners are subject to unlimited financial liability.

The major disadvantage of partnerships is that partners, like sole proprietors, are legally liable for all debts of the firm. In partnerships, the unlimited liability is both joint and personal. Partners are also legally responsible for actions of other partners. Partnerships are not as easy to dissolve as sole proprietorships.

Limited companies

Limited companies, unlike proprietorships or partnerships, are created by law and are separate from the people who own and manage them. Limited companies are also referred to as corporations. In limited companies, ownership is represented by shares of stock. The owners, at an annual meeting, elect a board of directors which has the responsibility of appointing company officers and setting the enterprise's objectives.

Limited companies are the least risky from an owner's point of view. Corporations can raise larger amounts of capital than proprietorships or partnerships through the addition of new investors or through better borrowing power. Limited companies do not end with the death of owners.

It is more expensive and complicated to establish corporations than proprietorships or partnerships. A charter, which requires the services of a lawyer, must be obtained through provincial governments or the federal government. In addition to legal costs, a firm is charged incorporation fees for its charter by the authorizing government.

Limited companies are subject to federal and provincial income taxes. Dividends to shareholders are also taxed on an individual basis.

With diverse ownerships, corporations do not enjoy the secrecy that proprietorships and partnerships have. A company must send each shareholder an annual report detailing the financial condition of the firm.




  1. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.




    1. What are the three traditional forms of business?

    2. What is a sole proprietorship?

    3. What is the owner of the company legally liable for?

    4. How do any proprietors try to protect themselves?

    5. Why may a sole proprietorship have difficulty in obtaining capital?

    6. What is a partnership?

    7. What are three types of partnerships?

    8. What is a major advantage of partnership?

    9. Are all of the partners subject to unlimited financial liabilities?

    10. What is a major disadvantage of partnership?

    11. How are limited companies created?

    12. Who is represented by shares of stock in limited companies?

    13. Do limited companies end with the death of owners?

    14. Is it more expensive and complicated to establish corporations? Why?

    15. What must a company send each shareholder?




  1. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

  1. The financial condition of the firm is the same as the financial condition of the owner.

  2. The sole proprietor mustn’t pay debts from his or her own pockets.

  3. A sole proprietorship doesn’t have any difficulty in obtaining capital.

  4. A partnership is an unincorporated enterprise owned by two or more individuals.

  5. There are three types of partnerships: general partnerships, limited partnerships and joint venture.

  6. Complementary management skills are a minor advantage of partnerships.

  7. In partnerships the limited liabilities are both joint and personal.

  8. Limited companies are not created by law and are not separate from the people who own and manage them.

  9. Limited companies end with the death of owners.

  10. Limited companies are subject to federal and provincial income taxes.




  1. Choose the correct variant to finish the sentence.


1. The financial condition of the firm………. .

a) is the same as the financial condition of the owner.

b) is better than the financial condition of the owner.

c) depends on the financial condition of the shareholder.



2. Some proprietors try to protect themselves…… .

a) lending assets such as their houses and automobiles to their relatives.

b) selling assets such as their houses and automobiles to their spouses.

c) pledging the assets to their relatives.



3. A partnership is an unincorporated enterprise owned……… .

a) by two or more firms.

b) by the members of the government.

c) by two or more individuals.



4. In limited companies, ownership is represented by…….. .

a) shares of stock.

b) assets.

c) investors.



5. All of the partners are…….. .

a) subject to limited financial liability.

b) subject to unlimited financial liability.

c) subject to unlimited juridical liability.



6. Limited companies are subject to …….. .

a) shareholders’ income taxes.

b) federal and provincial income taxes.

c) foreign investors income taxes.




  1. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.




  1. Retell the text according to its outline.

IV. Careers in Business

|I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.

accounting бухгалтерское дело

data processing обработка данных

bookkeeper бухгалтер

aptitude пригодность

advancement продвижение

human resources трудовые ресурсы

track запись

requirement требование

competitive конкурентный

predictable предсказуемый


  1. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.




    1. broad fields

    2. pursue a career

    3. requirement

    4. setting goals

    5. self-assessment

    6. retention

    7. reduction

    8. career

a)self-esteem;

b)setting up aims;

c)areas of business;

d)to follow some steps in order to overtake success at work;

e)keeping a job place;

f)lessening of the staff;

g)a path or progress through life or history;

h)something demanded or imposed as an obligation






  1. Read the text except Case 1 and define the difference between a career and a job.

Business is an increasingly important activity throughout the world today. Consequently, the opportunities for a business career have grown in variety and number. There are now five broad fields or areas of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, finance and data processing. Within each of these fields there are specific jobs in which you can specialize. For example, within the field of marketing you can specialize in market research, advertising, buying, selling, or distribution. The figure below gives an idea of the general career opportunities that are available in the various fields of business



Fig. 1. Business Fields and Careers


Manage-

ment

Marke-

ting

Accoun-

ting

Finance

Data Processing

Human resource Management

Produc-

tion

General manager

Marke-

ting manager



Chief account-

tant


Finance mana-

ger


Computer operator

Personnel Manager

Production manager

Executive manager

Resear-

cher


Bookkee-

per


Banker

Computer programmer










Adver-

tiser





Finan-

cial analyst



Systems analyst










Distribu-

tor





Stock Broker













PR manager




Auditor













Sales Manager















In choosing a business career, there are several questions you may want to ask. For instance, does the work interest you? Are there any areas of business for which you have an aptitude or special capability? What are the opportunities involved, such as demand (or need) for the job, salary, and chance for advancement? Answers to these kinds of questions and careful planning will help in choosing a suitable and successful career in business.

What does it mean to have a career? Most people do not want to just "go to work"; they want to "pursue a career." To some people, having a career requires successful movement up the corporate ladder, marked by boosts in salary and status. To others, a career means having a profession—doctors and professors have careers, whereas secretaries and blue-collar workers have jobs. Still others will tell you that no matter what the occupation, the difference between a career and a job is about 20 hours a week—that is, people who have careers are so involved in their work that they extend beyond its requirements. For these people, it is psychological involvement in their work that defines a career.

A job is a specific task performed for an organization. A career is the sequence of jobs a person holds over a life span and the person's attitudes toward involvement in those job experiences. A career has a long-term perspective and includes a series of jobs. Moreover, to understand careers we must look not only at people’s work histories or resumes but also at their attitudes toward their work. People may have more or less money or power, be professional or blue collar, and vary in the importance they place on the work in relation to the rest of their lives - yet all may have careers.

Individual career planning normally entails five steps—self-assessment, exploring opportunities, making decisions and setting goals, action planning, and follow-up. Individual careers follow predictable stages that include exploration and trial, establishment and advancement, mid-career, and disengagement. Other issues of concern to individual career planning are mentors and coping with stress.

Productivity satisfaction, retention, and commitment of valued employees, stress reduction, and a flexible work force will help the organization remain competitive in the global economy.



Case 1

Kim Jackson's love of politics, hard work, and excellent research and writing skills placed her on a career track to becoming a political correspondent on Capitol Hill. When her interests and enthusiasm for the job waned, Jackson wondered if she should make a career change. Before making a major move, she discussed her concerns with her editor and a member of the human resource management office. The newspaper, which was reluctant to lose a reporter of Jackson's talents and background, provided an opportunity for her to undergo testing and experimentation in other potential areas of career interest. Eventually, a simple solution emerged: Jackson was moved to the international desk. Covering international political events renewed her enthusiasm and her years on Capitol Hill gave her special insight into U.S. reaction to global events.


  1. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

1. What careers does business offer?

2. What questions should you answer while choosing a business career?

3. What will help you in choosing a suitable and successful career in business?

4. What does it mean to have a career?

5. How does a career characterize people?

6. What are the steps of individual career planning?

7. What will help the organization remain competitive in our global economy?

8. Read Case 1 and explain how Jackson was moved to the international desk.

9. What other examples of successful career paths can you give?




  1. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or

false (F).
1. Nowadays the opportunities for a business career have declined in variety and number.

2. Kim Jackson became a political correspondent on Capitol Hill of her love politics, hard work, excellent research and writing skills.

3. The newspaper didn’t provide an opportunity for Kim Jackson to move to the international desk and she left the job.

4. Most people do not want to pursue a career; they want just to go to work.

5. The difference between a career and a job is about 20 hours a week.

6. To understand careers we must look only at people’s work histories or resumes.

7. Individual career planning normally entails four steps.


  1. Find Russian equivalents to the following phrases in the second column.




1. market research

2.Personnel Manager

3. Sales Manager

4. give one’s special insight into

5. be reluctant

6. life span

7. job experiences

8. blue collar

9. career opportunities

10. making decisions

11. action planning

12. follow-up

13. mid-career

14. commitment of valued employees

15. coping with stress

16. flexible work force



a) справляться с напряжением;

b) продолжительность жизни;

c) последующая работа (деятельность)

d) начальник отдела кадров;

e) делающий что-л. с большой неохотой, по принуждению;

f)начальник сбыта;

g) обязательства ценных работников;

h)трудовой опыт;

i)исследование рынка;

j) сeредина карьеры;

k)"синий воротничок", производственный рабочий;

l)обратить особое внимание;

m) возможности карьерного роста;

n)принятие решение;

o) легко приспосабливающаяся рабочая сила;

p) планирование действий.






  1. Choose the appropriate translation of the following sentences.


1. There are now five broad fields or areas of business that offer exciting careers.

a) Есть теперь пять широких полей или области бизнеса, которые предлагают захватывающие карьеры.

b) В бизнесе существует пять широких областей или сфер, предлагающих захватывающую карьеру


    1. To some people, having a career requires successful movement up the corporate ladder, marked by boosts in salary and status.

a) Для некоторых людей карьера – это успешное продвижение вверх по корпоративной лестнице с повышением в заработке и статусе.

b) Некоторым людям, имея карьеру требует успешного движения корпоративная лестница, отмеченная повышениями в заработке и статусе.



3. A career is the sequence of jobs a person holds over a life span and the person's attitudes toward involvement in those job experiences.

a) Карьера – последовательность рабочих мест, занимаемых человеком в течение жизни, и его отношение к вовлеченности в рабочий процесс.

b) Карьера - последовательность рабочих мест, человек держит за продолжительность жизни и отношения человека к причастности в тех опытах работы.

Other issues of concern to individual career planning are mentors and coping with stress.

a) Другие проблемы беспокойства к индивидуальному планированию карьеры - наставники и справляющийся с напряжением.



b) Другие проблемные моменты в планировании личной карьеры связаны с наставниками и преодолением стресса.


  1. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.




  1. Retell the text according to its outline.


V. Management

  1. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.




integration

укрупнение

ensure

обеспечивать

objectives

цели

integrate

объединять

staffing

кадровое обеспечение

establish

устанавливать

directing

управление

essential

существенный

hire

нанимать

get rid of

избавиться

guiding

управляющий

accomplish

выполнять

performance

исполнение

make adjustments

приспособиться

deserve

заслуживать

mention

упоминать

authority

власть

layer

уровень

top management

высший уровень управления

middle management

средний уровень управления

supervisory

контролирующий

chief executive officer (CEO)

главный исполнительный директор

human resources manager

начальник отдела кадров,

implement

осуществлять

tool

орудие, средство

equipment

оборудование




  1. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.




1. Management

2. subordinate

3. staff

4. Clarification

5. Planning

6.Organizing

7. Directing

8. Controlling

9. performance

10. feedback

a) to offer or suggest (information, ideas, etc.) in reaction to an inquiry, experiment, etc.

b) the act, process, or art of performing

c) under the authority or control of another

d) a group of people employed by a company, individual, etc

e) to form (parts or elemnts of something) into a structured whole; coordinate

f) the technique, price, or science of managing, controlling or dealing with

g) to regulate, or control the affairs

h) a detailed scheme, method, etc., for attaining an objective

i) to command, direct, or rule

j) making smth. clear or easy to understand





  1. Read the statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F).




  1. Management is the effective and efficient integration and coordination of resources to achieve desired objectives.

  2. Managers have to perform several functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.

  3. Every manager should think about how to hire the best employees and how to get rid of those who can’t work efficiently.

  4. Managers can make adjustments if something goes wrong.

  5. The management pyramid may consist of many layers but the most common ones are top management, and supervisory management (or lower-level management).

  6. The middle managers are the chief executive officer (CEO), the chief financial officer, the marketing director, the human resources manager, the production manager, and others.

  7. The lower-level managers are responsible for implementing the strategies and plans developed by top management.

  8. Many university graduates usually start their careers at the top management.

  9. Managers should have technical job skills, human relations skills, and analytical skills to perform their tasks.




  1. Read the text and check up your answers in ex. III.

Management is the effective and efficient integration and coordination of resources to achieve desired objectives. Managers are those people who are responsible for ensuring that this happens. A manager integrates and combines human, capital, and technological resources in the best way possible to ensure that the company’s objectives are achieved.

It is common knowledge that managers have to perform several functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.

The first function – planning – is connected with decisions about what to produce, how to finance your business, where to market the goods or services, and what resources to use.



Organizing – the second function – is concerned with establishing relationships among tasks, activities, and people in the company. It is also related to structuring your business.

Staffing is the third essential function. Every manager should think about how to hire the best employees and how to get rid of those who can’t work efficiently.

As for directing, this function is about guiding and motivating employees to accomplish the company’s objectives. Here it’s critical to remember about being a leader, because if you are not one, it will be very difficult for you to direct your staff correctly.

And lastly comes controlling which means monitoring and evaluating the company’s performance. This function is important because it gives you an opportunity to make adjustments if something goes wrong. At the same time controlling is closely connected with planning as long as it shows if the manager has achieved the objectives or not.

To my mind, one important thing that deserves mentioning is the management pyramid. In short, it’s a structure of authority relationships among the managers. The pyramid may consist of many layers but the most common ones are top management, middle management, and supervisory management (or lower-level management).

As far as top managers go, they are mainly responsible for setting the direction and strategy of their business. They are the chief executive officer (CEO), the chief financial officer, the marketing director, the human resources manager, the production manager, and others.

Then go the middle managers who are responsible for implementing the strategies and plans developed by top management. They might be regional managers, sales managers, plant and department managers, and so on. Their tasks are hiring employees, designing jobs, purchasing materials, choosing equipment, etc.

As for supervisory management (or lower-level managers), they mainly supervise and coordinate work of non-management employees (office clerks and workers). One interesting fact is that many university graduates usually start their careers at this particular level.

There are three basic skills that managers should have to perform their tasks. They are technical job skills, human relations skills, and analytical skills. Let me tell you about each of them in turn.



First, technical skills; they are connected with the manager’s ability to understand and use the specific tools, knowledge, and techniques in their work. Second, human relations skills, which are about socializing with your subordinates, motivating and directing them in order to improve performance. And third, analytical skills, that relate to understanding the whole organization, analysing and evaluating information, and making appropriate plans and decisions.


  1. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.




  1. What is management?

  2. What are managers?

  3. What are the functions of management?

  4. Controlling is connected with decisions about what to produce, how to finance your business, where to market the goods or services, and what resources to use, isn’t it?

  5. Who should think about how to hire the best employees and how to get rid of those who can’t work efficiently?

  6. What function means monitoring and evaluating the company’s performance?

  7. What layers of management do you know?

  8. What skills should managers have to perform their tasks?


VI. Match the halves of the phrases from the text.


1.desired

a)relationships

2.responsible for

b)the objectives.

3.market

c)management

4.establishing

d)the direction

5.structure

e)ensuring

6.accomplish

f)your subordinates

7.lower-level

g)the goods or services

8.setting

h)their tasks

9.socializing with

i)objectives

10.perform

j)your business.


VII. Find Russian equivalents to the phrases in ex. VI.


a)выполнять задачи

f)находить рынок сбыта товаров и услуг

b)установить отношения

g)ответственннй за обеспечение

c)общаться с подчиненными

h)достичь целей

d)устанавливать направление

i)руководители низкого ранга

e)искомые результаты

j)систематизировать свою деятельность


VIII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.
IX. Retell the text according to its outline.


VI. Factory Production


  1. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.




bring about


осуществлять; вызывать

disarmingly


обезоруживающий


owe

быть в долгу (перед кем-л.)

gain


добывать, выигрывать

sleek

гладкий

stretch

растягивать

appropriate

должный

technique

технические приемы

brazier

жаровня

bountiful

щедрый

glow

сверкать

competent

осведомлённый

convince

убеждать

viable

жизнеспособный

incredible

маловероятный

mahogany

красное дерево

interpret

объяснять

upsurge

подъём




  1. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.




  1. production

  2. contribution

  3. standard of living

  4. division of labor

  5. production line

  6. run

  7. mass production

  8. batch production

  9. job production




a) producing of smth. individually;

b) something given, such as money or ideas;

c) a continuous flow of producing smth.;

d) a level of subsistence or material welfare of a community, class, or person;

e) the creation or manufacture for sale of goods and services with exchange value;

f) distribution of work among workers;

g) the amount of work performed in a period of time;

h) producing of smth. in large quantities.

i) creating a significant number of similar items





  1. Read the text Part 1 and explain the highlighted words.



Каталог: bitstream -> edoc
edoc -> Учебная программа учреждения высшего образования по учебной дисциплине для специальности 1-25 81 02 «Экономика» 2014
edoc -> Вопросы к экзамену по курсу «Психология личности»
edoc -> Методические рекомендации по написанию работ
edoc -> II. Содержание дисциплины
edoc -> Тема Экономическая психология как наука
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edoc -> Вопросы к экзамену по дисциплине «Психология рекламы»
edoc -> Дифференциальная психология


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