How to promote the spread of mobile phones among the world's poorest
SOMETIME in the next few months, the number of mobile phones in use will exceed 3.3 billion, or half the world's population. No technology has ever spread faster around the globe: the mobile phone took less than two decades to reach this degree of penetration. But the ever-restless wireless industry has already set its sights on getting the other half connected. Two recent reports analyse how to add the “next billion” to the subscriber list.In practice, that means finding ways to make mobile phones more affordable to people in the developing world, since most people in the developed world already have phones. The single largest barrier for would-be mobile subscribers, according to a report by Portio Research, a market-research firm, is the cost of a handset. So the industry has been doing its best to cut prices, with Motorola, an ailing American equipment-maker, taking the lead. Its cheapest phones now cost less than $30. John White of Portio believes that prices for simple, voice-only handsets could fall to $10 in five years.
But affordable phones are only part of the picture. Operators in developing countries have been inventive in their efforts. Smart Communications, an operator in the Philippines, sells text messages for as little as $1.80 per 100 messages, and allows subscribers to pass airtime to phone “buddies” at a cost of less than $0.03 per minute. Yet even as the industry strives to make handsets and services cheaper, governments keep adding costs—mainly by levying taxes and customs duties. The average ratio of tax payments to operator revenues is 30%. On average the mobile industry, which accounts for 4% of GDP, contributes 7% of national tax revenue.
This enthusiasm for taxation is easy to explain: governments have to tax something, and mobile phones are an easy target, since operators' billing systems do all the hard work. But treating mobile phones as a cash cow is shortsighted, says Gabriel Solomon of the GSMA, because mobile-specific taxes reduce demand. If governments did away with them and charged only VAT, tax revenues from the mobile industry would be around 3% higher by 2012, the report found, and the average penetration rate would increase from 33% to 41%.
There are four main different kinds of UK companies which can be registered. Each might be suitable in specific situations, although to some extent, more than one type of company may satisfy the particular requirements of the purchaser.
The different types of company in the UK are: companies limited by shares, companies limited by guarantee, public limited companies (PLCs) and less commonly known, unlimited companies.
When forming a company, the choice of which type of business structure to adopt is an important one and requires adequate consideration.
Changing the type of company might be possible in certain situations, whereas in others, it would not be an option.
Whilst it is possible to change a private company limited by shares to a PLC, it is not permissible to change the fundamentals of the incorporation and migrate it to a limited by guarantee entity.
Registering a company of any kind will carry with it its own set of business regulations which have to be adhered to. Some of the requirements are more stringent and potentially onerous than others, particularly those for public limited companies.
The purchasers should consider their capacity to both manage and fund whichever kind of entity they select and might wish to plan a migration route to another kind of company based on their future ambitions and plans.
6.4.3 Образец плана пересказа текста разговорной тематики
The Headline/Title of the Article/text
The article/text is headlined…
The article/text goes under the headline…
The article/text under the headline…has the subhead…
The Place of Origin
The article/text is printed/ published in…
The article/text is from a newspaper under the nameplate…
The article/text is dated by the first of October 2007
The article/text is printed on the second of October in 2007
The article/text is written by…/The author of the article is…
The article/text is written by a group of authors
The article/text deals with the topic…
The basic subject matter of the script is…
The article/text touches upon the topic of…
The headline of the article/text corresponds to the topic.
The Main Idea/Aim of the Article/Text
The purpose of the article/text/author is to give the reader some information on…; to inform with…; to compare/determine…; to provide the reader with some material/data on…
The Contents of the Article/Text
important facts, names, figures.
The article/text can be divided into some parts (The first part deals with…, the second covers the events, the third touches upon the problem of…, the fourth part includes some interviews, dialogues, pictures, reviews, references, quotations, figures.
The article/text is written in the form of the monologue, from the first/third person narration.
In the article/text we come across an interview, historical facts, a speech of…, the picture from the place of events .
-The author starts by telling the reader…(writes, states, stresses, depicts, says, informs, underlines, confirms, emphasizes, puts an accent on, accepts/denies the fact, reports, resorts to, hints on, inclines to and so on)
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The key sentence/words of the article/text…the following…
The Vocabulary of the Article/Text
-the topical voc.
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While reading I’ve come across some topical words and expressions like…/A great number of words belong to the topic:
The author’s vocabulary is rather vivid, poor, rich
The author resorts to colorful general phrases/ clichés/stable statements/understatements/exaggerations/words with negative/positive connotation/fine words/descriptive adjectives/comparisons (to create a vivid picture, a humorous effect/to enforce the influence the reader)
We see the author’s mastery in conveying the main idea to the reader with the help of the phrases/parenthesis/sayings/proverbs
Personal Opinion/Impression of the Article/text
I found the article/text interesting/important/hard to understand (Why?)
I appreciate the author’s word-painting as/superb/ordinary/
Personal View on the Topic/Idea/Problem
The message of the writer is clear to understand… I share the author’s view…I see the problem in different way… I don’t quite agree with the fact…