М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова


THE COURT SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES



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THE COURT SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES


List of words

Read the words and learn them.

civil case

гражданское дело

civil law

гражданское право

criminal case

уголовное дело

criminal law

уголовное право

coroners' courts

суды коронёров

the county court

суд графства

the court of appeal

апелляционный суд

the crown court

королевский суд

to deal with

иметь дело с

to dispute over

спорить, оспорить что-либо

to be divided into

делиться на

the European Court of Human Rights

Европейский суд по правам человека

the European Court of Justice

Европейский суд

to govern

управлять

to be heard by

слушаться ( каким-либо судом)

the High court

Высший суд

Higher courts

суды высшей инстанции

The House of Lords

Палата Лордов

interaction

взаимодействие

juvenile courts

суды по делам несовершеннолетних

magistrates’ courts

суд магистрата, мировой суд

minor criminal case/offence

малозначительное правонарушение, проступок, нарушение (against - чего-л.); преступление

petition

петиция; прошение, ходатайство

On the points of law

по пунктам закона

to refer to

относится к чему-либо

transaction

дело; сделка, соглашение

tribunal/administrative tribunals

орган правосудия; судебное или арбитражное учреждение; суд; трибунал/ арбитражные суды


Ex. 1 Study the types of crimes and match them with their definition

  1. a theft

  1. taking the property of another by means of force or fear

  1. a bankruptcy case

  1. the illegal taking of another person's property

  1. arson

  1. a crime in which one person kills another

  1. a robbery

  1. the crime of voluntarily setting fire to the building, buildings, or other property of another

  1. a murder

  1. an investigation of a case when a company declares its inability pay its creditors

  1. shoplifting

  1. ruthless destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful

  1. vandalism

  1. a theft of goods from a shop


Ex. 2 Complete the phrase by matching the word from A with its best association from B. Translate the phrases.

A

B

  1. to govern

  1. on points of law

  1. to be heard

  1. are divorce or bankruptcy cases

  1. appeals

  1. in tribunals

  1. civil cases

  1. between individuals

  1. as a result

  1. quick, cheap and fair decisions

  1. to make

  1. of petitions

  1. disputes

  1. the relationships between citizens


Ex. 3. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions.

To be divided ___, to be laid down _____ the state, relationships and transactions ______citizens, to be mostly heard ______ tribunals, to go ____ the Crown court, to be heard ______ higher courts, to hear appeals ______courts, to be referred _____, disputes ________ individuals, to deal ________, disputes _________ taxation, as a result ______.


Ex.4. Translate the following phrases into Russian and use them in the sentences of your own.

The most common type of law court, a magistrates’ court, criminal cases, the Crown court, civil cases, divorce, bankruptcy cases, to be dealt with, county courts, appeal, to be heard, appeals on points of law, the highest court of appeal, to be referred to, the European court of Justice, the legal system, to include, juvenile courts, an offender, coroners’ courts, violent, sudden, unnatural deaths, administrative tribunals, fair decisions, formality, professional standards, disputes, government departments, taxation.



Ex.5. Render the following sentences into English.

  1. Самым распространённым судом общего права в Англии и Уэльсе является мировой суд.

  2. Уголовные дела направляются на рассмотрение в суд Короны.

  3. Гражданские дела рассматриваются в суде графств.

  4. Высшим апелляционным судом является Палата лордов.

  5. Апелляции заслушиваются в высших судебных инстанциях.

  6. Правовая система включает суды для несовершеннолетних, суды коронеров.

  7. Административные суды рассматривают вопросы профессиональной этики, разногласия между гражданскими лицами.

  8. Некоторые дела направляются на рассмотрение в Европейский суд в Люксембурге.


Ex. 6. Read the text and translate it into Russian.

The Court System in England and Wales

The law in England and Wales is divided into criminal law and civil law. Criminal law involves the rules laid down by the state for citizens, while civil law governs the relationships and transactions between citizens. Administrative law is a special sort of civil law that concerns the interactions of citizens with the state. Administrative law cases are mostly heard in tribunals, while civil and criminal cases are heard in the main court system.

Most minor criminal cases, called offences, are heard in local magistrates' courts. The magistrates' court is the most common type of law court in England and Wales. There are 700 magistrates' courts and about 30,000 magistrates. More serious criminal cases then go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County courts. Appeals are heard by higher courts. For example, appeals from magistrates' courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals on points of law. There are 78 Crown Court centres throughout England and Wales.

The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is the House of Lords. (Scotland has its own High Court in Edinburgh, which hears all appeals from Scottish courts.) Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. In addition, individuals have made the British Government change its practices in a number of areas as a result of petitions to the European Court of Human Rights. The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners' courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths). There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).



Ex.7. Find in the text English equivalents for the words below:

  1. уголовное право;

  2. гражданское право;

  3. мировой судья;

  4. Суд короны;

  5. гражданское дело;

  6. суды графств;

  7. Европейский суд по правам человека;

  8. правовая система;

  9. суд по делам несовершеннолетних;

  10. правонарушение;

  11. правонарушитель;

  12. насильственная смерть;

  13. развод;

  14. налогообложение;

  15. банкротство.


Ex.8. Use the information from the text and answer the following questions.

  1. What two types of law exist in England and Wales?

  2. In the United Kingdom, what is the difference between criminal and civil law?

  3. What is the most common type of law court in England and Wales?

  4. What cases are heard in magistrates' courts?

  5. What are the other types of British courts?

  6. What courts deal with serious criminal cases?

  7. What courts deal with civil cases?

  8. What is the highest court of appeal in England and Wales?

  9. What cases do coroners’ courts and juvenile courts investigate?

  10. What cases do tribunals deal with?


Ex. 9. Decide if the following sentences are True or False

  1. The law in England and Wales is divided into criminal law and civil law

  2. Criminal law governs the relationships and transactions between citizens.

  3. Administrative law cases are mostly heard in magistrates’ courts.

  4. The magistrates' court is not common in England and Wales.

  5. Minor criminal cases are heard in local magistrates' courts.

  6. More serious criminal cases then go the County court.

  7. Appeals are heard by lower courts.

  8. There are 30 000 magistrates' courts and about 700 magistrates.

  9. The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is the House of Lords

  10. The legal system doesn’t include administrative tribunals

  11. Tribunals deal with disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments

  12. Coroners’ courts deal with offenders under 17.


Ex. 10. Develop the sentences:

  1. The law in England and Wales is…

  2. Criminal law involves…

  3. Civil law governs…

  4. Administrative law is…

  5. The most common type of law court in England and Wales is…

  6. Offences are heard in…

  7. More serious criminal cases go to…

  8. Civil cases are dealt with…

  9. Appeals are heard by…

  10. The highest court of appeal is…

  11. The legal system also includes…

  12. Juvenile courts deal with…and coroners' courts investigate…

  13. Tribunals deal with…


Ex.11. Dwell on the functions of…

Magistrates’ courts

The Crown court

County courts

The House of Lords

Tribunals

Juvenile courts

Coroners’ courts


hear(s)


deal(s) with

investigate(s)






Ex 12. Which courts do you think deal with:

  1. a bank robbery?

  2. a divorce case?

  3. a burglary committed by a fifteen-year-old?

  4. a drowning?

  5. a case of driving too fast?


Ex.13. Summarize and develop the following sentences.

Criminal courts are….

Civil courts are…

Ex.14. Write down key words, phrases and sentences from each paragraph of the text.


Ex.15. Reduce the text to one fifth of its original length giving the most important information.

  1. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

  2. Retell the text according to its outline.

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