Ex. 3. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions.
To be divided ___, to be laid down _____ the state, relationships and transactions ______citizens, to be mostly heard ______ tribunals, to go ____ the Crown court, to be heard ______ higher courts, to hear appeals ______courts, to be referred _____, disputes ________ individuals, to deal ________, disputes _________ taxation, as a result ______.
Ex.4. Translate the following phrases into Russian and use them in the sentences of your own.
The most common type of law court, a magistrates’ court, criminal cases, the Crown court, civil cases, divorce, bankruptcy cases, to be dealt with, county courts, appeal, to be heard, appeals on points of law, the highest court of appeal, to be referred to, the European court of Justice, the legal system, to include, juvenile courts, an offender, coroners’ courts, violent, sudden, unnatural deaths, administrative tribunals, fair decisions, formality, professional standards, disputes, government departments, taxation.
Ex.5. Render the following sentences into English.
The law in England and Wales is divided into criminal law and civil law. Criminal law involves the rules laid down by the state for citizens, while civil law governs the relationships and transactions between citizens. Administrative law is a special sort of civil law that concerns the interactions of citizens with the state. Administrative law cases are mostly heard in tribunals, while civil and criminal cases are heard in the main court system.
Most minor criminal cases, called offences, are heard in local magistrates' courts. The magistrates' court is the most common type of law court in England and Wales. There are 700 magistrates' courts and about 30,000 magistrates. More serious criminal cases then go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County courts. Appeals are heard by higher courts. For example, appeals from magistrates' courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals on points of law. There are 78 Crown Court centres throughout England and Wales.
The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is the House of Lords. (Scotland has its own High Court in Edinburgh, which hears all appeals from Scottish courts.) Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. In addition, individuals have made the British Government change its practices in a number of areas as a result of petitions to the European Court of Human Rights. The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners' courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths). There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).
Ex.7. Find in the text English equivalents for the words below: