М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова



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THE COURT SYSTEM OF THE USA


List of words

Read the words and learn them:

appellate court

аппеляционный суд

to coexist

сосуществовать

complex

сложный, составной

district court

окружной суд

exception

исключение

federal court

федеральный суд

identical

тождественный

individual

частное лицо

jurisdiction

юрисдикция

litigation

судебное разбирательство, тяжба

majority

большинство

to resolve

разрешать

state court

суд штата

to sue

преследовать судебным порядком

Supreme court

Верховный суд

tier

ярус,ряд


Ex. 1. Match the words with their definitions:

  1. Court

  1. The process of proceeding against someone in a court

  1. Litigation

  1. A system that is organized in different levels

  1. Jurisdiction

  1. The place where a trial is held

  1. Sue

  1. The power of a court to hear and decide a case

  1. Judge

  1. A formal request to a court or to someone in authority asking for a decision to be changed

  1. Appeal

  1. To take legal action against someone in a civil case

  1. Case

  1. A person with authority to hear and decide disputes brought before a court

  1. Pyramid

  1. A question or problem that will be dealt with by a law court


Ex.2. Complete the phrase by matching the words from A with its best association from B. Translate the phrases.

A

B

  1. to run

  1. cases

  1. to fall

  1. its own system

  1. to be sued

  1. in tiers

  1. to depend on

  1. in either system

  1. to be organized

  1. the case

  1. to review

  1. under jurisdiction


Ex.3. Match the words with their synonyms:

  1. Identical

  1. To settle

  1. Complex

  1. Level ( Layer)

  1. To resolve

  1. Similar

  1. Tier

  1. Apex

  1. Top

  1. To start

  1. Claim

  1. Complicated

  1. To begin

  1. An action


Ex. 4. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions:

To be part…; … addition; coexist…; to fall… the jurisdiction; to sue… either system; depend… the case; to be resolved… the state court; … the bottom; … the middle; … the top; to take a case… a higher court; to be decided… lower courts; to be known… generalists.


Ex.5. Translate the following phrases into Russian and use them in the sentences of your own.

To be complex; to function as part of the system; to be identical; national government; federal courts; coexist; state courts; to fall under the jurisdiction; to sue; to depend on the case; the vast majority; to resolve the case; to be organized in tiers; at the bottom; the US district courts; to begin litigation, the US Supreme Court, to take a case to a higher court, to review cases, a wide array of cases.


Ex. 6. Render the following sentences into English:

  1. В Америке система судебных органов подразделяется на федеральную судебную систему и судебную систему штата.

  2. Верховный Суд может пересматривать решения суда штата.

  3. Частные лица подпадают под юрисдикцию двух разных судебных систем.

  4. Большинство дел разрешаются в судах штата.

  5. По своей структуре федеральные суды напоминают пирамиду, у основания которой находятся окружные суды.

  6. Аппелировать означает подать иск в высший суд.

  7. Верховный Суд является судом последней инстанции.


Ex.7. Read the text and translate it into Russian

The Organization of the Federal Courts Today

The American court system is complex. It functions as part of the federal system of government. Each state runs its own court system, and no two are identical. In addition, we have a system of courts for the national government. These federal courts coexist with the state courts.

Individuals fall under the jurisdiction of two different court systems, their state courts and federal courts. They can sue or be sued in either system, depending mostly on what their case is about. The vast majority of cases are resolved in the state courts.

The federal courts are organized in three tiers, like a pyramid. At the bottom of the pyramid are the US district courts, where litigation begins. In the middle are the US courts of appeals. At the top is the US Supreme Court. To appeal means to take a case to a higher court. The courts of appeals and the Supreme Court are appellate courts, with few exceptions, they review cases that have been decided in lower courts. Most federal courts hear and decide a wide array of cases; the judges in these courts are known as generalists.


Ex.8. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words below:

  1. сосуществовать;

  2. частные лица;

  3. суды штатов;

  4. подать иск;

  5. федеральные суды;

  6. подавляющее большинство;

  7. подпадать под юрисдикцию;

  8. разрешить дело в судебном порядке;

  9. ярус;

  10. Верховный суд;

  11. судебное разбирательство, тяжба;

  12. окружные суды;

  13. высшие суды;

  14. аппеляционные суды;

  15. исключение;

  16. низшие суды;

  17. рассматривать дело.


Ex.9. Use the information from the text to answer the questions:

  1. Why is the American court system complex?

  2. Are state court systems identical?

  3. Federal courts coexist with the state courts, don’t they?

  4. In which courts can individuals sue or be sued?

  5. In what way are the federal courts constructed?

  6. Name American courts in the descending order.

  7. Where does litigation begin?

  8. What does the word «to appeal» mean?

  9. What do the appellate courts review?

  10. What are the functions of most federal courts?

  11. What are the judges in federal courts known as ?


Ex.10. Decide if the following sentences are True or False:

  1. In the United States the judiciary is divided into the national ( federal ) and state judiciary.

  2. State judicial systems are similar.

  3. Federal courts coexist with the state courts.

  4. Individuals fall under the jurisdiction of one court system.

  5. Individuals can sue or be sued in both systems.

  6. The vast majority of cases are resolved in the federal courts.

  7. The federal courts are organized in two tiers.

  8. At the bottom of the pyramid are the courts of appeals.

  9. At the top is the US Supreme Court.

  10. To appeal means to take a case to a lower court.

  11. The appellate courts review cases that have been decided in lower courts.


Ex. 11. Restore the word order in the sentences.

  1. In the is divided into United States the federal judiciary and state systems.

  2. Each runs state court system its own.

  3. The jurisdiction individuals of two fall under different systems courts.

  4. Criminal and civil cases federal courts hear.

  5. Majority the vast of cases resolved are courts in the state.

  6. Three tiers in are organized the federal courts.

  7. Litigation usually in the US district courts begins.

  8. To take a case to appeal means to a higher court.

  9. The judges are known as in federal courts generalists.


Ex.12. Develop the sentences:

  1. The American court system functions as …….

  2. Each state runs …….

  3. These federal courts coexist …….

  4. Individuals fall under …….

  5. The vast majority of cases…….

  6. The federal courts…….

  7. At the bottom of the pyramid…….

  8. In the middle are…….

  9. At the top there is……….

  10. The appellate courts review…….


Ex.13. Fill in the blanks.

The Federal and State Court Systems

The federal courts have three tiers: (a) -------------- courts, courts of (b) --------------- and the (c) ----------- Court. The (d) --------------Court was created by the Constitution; all other (e ----------------courts were created by Congress. Most litigation occurs in (f) --------------courts. The structure of (g) --------------- courts variers from state to state; usually there are (h) --------------- for less serious cases, (i) ----------------for more serious cases, intermediate (j) ---------------- courts , and courts of last (k) -------------- . State courts were created by state constitutions.



Ex. 14. Summarize the information using the following phrases:

to resolve; to be organized; to hear; to decide

Federal courts ……….

State courts…………



Ex. 15 Draw a scheme of the judicial system of England and Wales and compare it with American court system. Pay attention to differences and similarities.

LAWMAKING PROCESS IN GREAT BRITAIN

List of words

Read the words and learn them:

to adopt / enact / pass legislation

принять закон

to alter

изменять; менять; видоизменять, вносить изменения, переделывать

to amend

вносить изменения, вносить поправки

a bill

законопроект, билль (вносимый на рассмотрение законодательных органов)

committee

комитет, комиссия

consent

согласие; соглашаться

debate

дебаты, дискуссия, обсуждение, прения

to draft a bill

составлять законопроект

draft legislation

законопроект

to introduce / propose a bill

предложить законопроект

legislation

закон; законопроект; законодательство

legislation in force

действующее законодательство

monarch

монарх

occasion

возможность, случай, шанс основание, причина; повод

to oppose a bill

высказаться против законопроекта

to pass a bill

принять законопроект

persistent

настойчивый, упорный

to prevail

преобладать, превалировать; доминировать

reading

чтение, стадия прохождения законопроекта в парламенте

to refuse

отвергать, отказывать; отклонять

reigning

царствующий

royal assent

королевская санкция

to shelve a bill

откладывать обсуждение законопроекта

to support a bill

поддержать законопроект

to throw out a bill

отклонить законопроект

to veto legislation

наложить вето на законопроект


Ex. 1. Complete the phrase by matching the word from A with its best association from B. Translate the phrases.

A

B

  1. draft

  1. assent

  1. royal

  1. for debate

  1. occasion

  1. legislation

  1. reigning

  1. monarch


Ex. 2. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions.

Legislation ___Britain usually starts ___ the House of Lords, the occasion ___debate, be examined ___ detail ____ a committee, to be returned ___ one ___ the houses ___ the report stage, to go ___ the other house.


Ex.3. Translate the following phrases into Russian:

The House of Lords, a bill, to be considered in three stages, readings, to introduce the bill, the occasion for debate, to be examined in detail by a committee, report stage, to be amended, amendments, the Commons, to be altered, in the event of persistent disagreement to prevail, reigning monarch, royal assent, to refuse the consent, to veto .


Ex. 4. Read the text and translate it into Russian.

New legislation in Britain usually starts in the House of Lords. In each house a bill is considered in three stages, called readings. The first reading is purely formal, to introduce the bill. The second reading is usually the occasion for debate. After the second reading the bill is examined in detail by a committee.

The bill is then returned to one of the houses for the report stage, when it can be amended. If passed after its third reading, it goes to the other house. Amendments made to a bill by the House of Lords must be considered by the Commons. If the House of Commons do not agree, the bill is altered and sent back to the Lords. In the event of persistent disagreement between the two houses, Commons prevails.

Finally, the bill goes to the reigning monarch for the royal assent. Nowadays the royal assent is merely a formality. In theory the queen could still refuse her consent, but the last monarch to use this power was Queen Anne, who vetoed the unpopular Scottish Militia Bill in 1707.


Ex.5. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words below:

  1. закон; законопроект;

  2. чтение;

  3. комитет, комиссия;

  4. вносить изменения, вносить поправки;

  5. королевская санкция;

  6. царствующий монарх;

  7. преобладать;

  8. настойчивое несогласие.


Ex.6. Use the information from the text to answer the questions:

  1. Where does a new legislation start in Britain?

  2. How many stages does a bill pass?

  3. Is the first reading formal? What is the first reading for?

  4. What is the second reading for?

  5. Who examines the bill in detail after the second reading?

  6. Where does the report stage take place?

  7. Where does the bill go to after the third reading?

  8. Who considers the amendments made to a bill by the House of Lords?

  9. What happens if the House of Commons do not agree?

  10. Who prevails in the event of persistent disagreement between the two houses?

  11. Where does the bill finally go to?

  12. Is the royal assent merely a formality?

  13. Could the queen refuse her consent?

  14. Who vetoed the unpopular Scottish Militia Bill in 1707?


Ex 7. Decide if the following sentences are True or False:

  1. New legislation in Britain usually starts in the House of Commons.

  2. In each house a bill is considered in two stages, called hearings.

  3. The first reading is not formal.

  4. The second reading is usually the occasion for speech.

  5. After the third reading the bill is examined in detail by a committee.

  6. The bill is returned to one of the houses for the report stage.

  7. If passed after its third reading, it goes to the other house.

  8. Amendments made to a bill by the House of Commons must be considered by the Lords.

  9. In the event of persistent disagreement between the two houses, Lords prevails.

  10. Finally, the bill goes to the reigning monarch for the royal assent.

  11. Nowadays the royal assent is merely a formality.

  12. In practice the queen could not still refuse her consent.

  13. The last monarch to use this power was Queen Anne, who vetoed the popular Scottish Militia Bill in 1707.

Ex. 8. Develop the sentences:

  1. New legislation in Britain usually starts ...

  2. In each house a bill is considered in …

  3. The first reading is purely ....

  4. The second reading is ...

  5. After the second reading the bill is ...

  6. The bill is then returned to …

  7. If passed after its third reading, it goes …

  8. Amendments made to a bill by the House of Lords must be …

  9. If the House of Commons do not agree, the bill is …

  10. In the event of persistent disagreement between the two houses…

  11. Finally, the bill goes to ...

  12. Nowadays the royal assent is ...

  13. In theory the queen could still refuse …


Ex.9. Write down key words, phrases and sentences from each paragraph of the text.
Ex.10. Reduce the text to one fifth of its original length giving the most important information.

  1. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

  2. Retell the text according to its outline.

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