М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова



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Solicitors


List of words

Read and learn the words

to advise

советовать

an agent

представитель; доверенное лицо

a case

судебное дело; случай, прецедент

a clerk

клерк ,солиситор-практикант

a client

клиент

to deal with something

иметь дело с

defense

защита

to include

включать в себя, содержать в себе

to increase

возрастать, увеличиваться; расти

litigation

тяжба; судебный процесс

to pass an exam

сдать экзамен

to prepare

готовить, подготавливать

to qualify

получать какую-л. профессию

a solicitor

солиситор, стряпчий

a will

завещание

to work on something

работать над чем-либо


Ex. 1. Match the words with their definitions.

  1. a client

  1. an action or suit at law

  1. a will

  1. the action of protecting oneself

  1. a case

  1. a person who acts on behalf of another person

  1. defense

  1. the declaration of a person's wishes regarding his or her property after death

  1. an agent

  1. a person, company, etc., that seeks the advice of a professional man or woman


Ex.2. Make up word combinations by matching the word from A with its best association from B and translate them.

A

B

  1. to make

  1. on cases

  1. agents for

  1. as a solicitor

  1. to increase

  1. legal documents

  1. to prepare

  1. a will

  1. to pass

  1. an exam

  1. to work

  1. rapidly

  1. to qualify

  1. litigation


Ex.3. Think of your own sentences with the following word combinations.

To work on court cases, to deal with all the day-to day work, act in all courts as the agents for litigation, to give advice, to make a will, to appear as advocates in lower courts, to get into trouble; to prepare legal documents, to join a practicing solicitor as a “clerk”, to pass the Law Society exams.


Ex. 4. Read the text.

Solicitors

England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers.

If a person has a problem, he will go and see a solicitor. Solicitors can be found everywhere. There are about 50000 solicitors in Britain. Solicitors make up the largest branch of legal professions in England.

Solicitor is a type of practicing lawyer in Britain. Solicitors work on court cases and deal with all the day-to-day work. Solicitors give advice, do the necessary work when property is bought or sold. If one wants to make a will the person to advise him is a solicitor. If one gets into trouble with the police one can ask a solicitor to help prepare legal document for his defense.

Solicitors have a right to act in all courts as the agents for litigation or representatives of their clients, but they may appear as advocates only in lower courts. Solicitors can speak in the County Court, when the case is one of divorce or recovering some debts. In the County Court the solicitor wears a black gown over his ordinary clothes.

The education required of a solicitor includes a law school course. To qualify as a solicitor one is to join a practicing solicitor as a “clerk” and to work for him for a period of five years (three years for university graduated) in order to pass the Law Society exams. Solicitors must be British Commonwealth citizens (The Commonwealth is an organization of about 50 countries that were part of the British Empire).


Ex. 5. Answer the questions.

1.How many solicitors are there in Great Britain?

2.Do solicitors make the smallest branch of legal professions in England?

3.Where can you find a solicitor?

4.What do solicitors do?

5.May solicitors appear as advocates in higher courts?

6.Where can a solicitor appear as a lawyer?

7.What cases can a solicitor represent in a court?

8.What education do solicitors need?

9.How long do solicitors work as “clerks”?

10.What exam do solicitors pass?

11.Solicitors must be British Commonwealth citizens, mustn’t they?



Ex.6. Decide if the following statements are True or False.

  1. There are about 30000solicitors in Great Britain.

  2. Solicitors make the smallest branch of legal professions in England

  3. Solicitors are found only in big cities.

  4. Solicitors work on court cases and deal with all the day-to day work.

  5. Solicitors represent clients in the higher court.

  6. Solicitors give advice and do not do the necessary work when property is bought or sold.

  7. If one gets into trouble with the police one can ask a solicitor to help prepare legal document for his defense.

  8. Solicitors do not have a right to act in all courts as the agents for litigation or representatives of their clients.

  9. Solicitors represent divorce cases in the High Court.

  10. The education required of a solicitor includes a secondary school course.

  11. To qualify as a solicitor one is to join a practicing solicitor as a “clerk” and to work for him forever.

  12. Solicitors pass the Law Society exams.

  13. Solicitors must be British Commonwealth citizens.

Ex. 7. Develop the following sentences.

    1. A solicitor is…

    2. Solicitors prepare…

    3. Solicitors deal with….

    4. Solicitors advise on….

    5. Solicitors help…

    6. Solicitors’ duties include…

    7. Solicitors can not…..

    8. The required education for solicitors includes….

    9. Solicitors must be citizens of


Ex. 8. Make a list of solicitors’ duties.

Ex. 9. Write down key words, phrases and sentences from each paragraph of the text.

Ex.10. Reduce the text to one fifth of its original length giving the most important information.

  1. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

  2. Retell the text according to its outline.


Barristers

List of words.

Read and learn the words.

to accept a case

принимать, брать; соглашаться

apprenticeship

учение; ученичество

a barrister

адвокат, барристер

to carry on

продолжать, заниматься

to defend

защищать на суде

to engage in

заниматься чем-л.

fee

вознаграждение, гонорар

a gown

мантия

higher court

суд вышестоящей инстанции

Inns of Court

"Судебные инны" (четыре английские школы подготовки барристеров)

to preside

председательствовать

proceedings

иск, обращение за судебной помощью

to prosecute

преследовать в судебном или уголовном порядке

QC (Queen's Counsel)

королевский адвокат

to be responsible for

быть ответственным за

to specialize in

специализироваться

a wig

парик


Ex.1 Match the words with their definitions.

  1. a wig

  1. an artificial head of hair

  1. apprenticeship

  1. an elegant or formal dress

  1. a fee

  1. a payment asked by professional people

  1. a gown

  1. the four private societies in London

  1. Inns of Court

  1. being a student


Ex. 2. Make up word combinations by matching the word from A with its best association from B and translate them.

A

B

  1. to engage

  1. in advocacy

  1. to advise on

  1. wigs and gowns

  1. to accept

  1. a case

  1. to wear

  1. apprenticeship

  1. to serve

  1. difficult points

  1. to carry

  1. on business


Ex.3 Read the text

Barristers

Barrister is one of the two types of practicing lawyers in England, the other is the solicitor. There are about 5000 barristers in England and Wales. In general, barristers engage in advocacy and solicitors deal with office work.

Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the Law. Barristers advise on really difficult points. Only barristers may appear as advocates before the High Court. In the court barristers wear wigs and gowns.

Barristers are rather untouchable figures. If you need one, you never see him without your solicitor being with him. Barristers do not have public offices in any street. They work in what is known as chambers, often in London. To be a barrister it is necessary to be a member of one of four Inns of Court in London. Inns of Court are four institutions that are historically responsible for legal education.

A prospective barrister must pass some examinations established for the Inns by the Council of Legal Education and must read law and serve his apprenticeship with a practicing barrister for not less than a year. The highest level of barristers has the title QC.

A barrister is required to accept any case for a proper professional fee. A good barrister can earn 30000 pounds a year. Only barristers can become judges in an English Court above a Magistrates’ Court. Barristers cannot carry on any other profession or business.



Barristers are also found in South Africa and New South West (Australia).
Ex. 4 Answer the questions.

      1. How many types of lawyers do you know?

      2. Are barristers experts in the interpretation of the Law?

      3. What do barristers engage in?

      4. Do barristers advise on easy points?

      5. May barristers appear as advocates before the High Court?

      6. What do barristers wear in the court?

      7. Why are barristers untouchable figures?

      8. How can you meet a barrister?

      9. Are barrister members of one of four Inns of Court in London?

      10. What exams do barristers pass?

      11. How long must they serve their apprenticeship?

      12. Do people pay for barristers’ advice?

      13. Barristers can not carry on any other profession or business, can’t they?


Ex. 5 Decide if the following statements are True or False.

        1. Barrister is the only type of practicing lawyers in England.

        2. In general, barristers engage in advocacy and solicitors deal with office work.

        3. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the Medicine.

        4. Barristers advise on really complex points.

        5. Only barristers may appear as advocates before lower courts.

        6. In the court barristers wear wigs and dresses.

        7. You never see a barrister without your solicitor being with you.

        8. To be a barrister it is necessary to be a member of two of four Inns of Court in London.

        9. A prospective barrister mustn’t pass some examinations established for the Inns by the Council of Legal Education.

        10. A prospective barrister must serve his apprenticeship with a practicing barrister for not less than a year.

        11. The most experienced barristers have a title QC.

        12. A barrister is required to accept any case for a proper professional fee.

        13. Barristers can carry on any other profession or business.



Ex.6. Develop the following sentences.

  1. Barrister is one of the two types of ….., the other is …...

  2. In general, barristers engage in ……

  3. Barristers are experts in …..

  4. Barristers advise on ….

  5. Only barristers may appear ….

  6. In the court barristers wear ….

  7. If you need a barrister you never …..

  8. To be a barrister it is necessary to be …

  9. A prospective barrister must pass …

  10. The most experienced barristers have ….

  11. A barrister is required to accept …..

  12. Barristers can not …...


Ex.7 Make a list of barristers’ duties.
Ex.8. Match the professionals with their duties.

Profession

Duty

Solicitor / Barrister

does the necessary work when property is bought and sold




has a right to act in all courts as a representative of his clients




may appear as an advocate only in the lower courts




may appear as an advocate before the High Court




conducts negotiations




prepares cases for trial




advises on really difficult points




engages in advocacy (trial work)




engages in office work




is an expert in the interpretation of the Law




drafts documents




retains barristers for advice on special matters or for




advocacy before the higher court




defends people in lower courts of law




gives advice




is an untouchable figure


Ex.9. Compare the duties of solicitors and barristers. Find similarities and differences in their duties, using the following connectors:

alike

both


neither…..nor

similar to

dissimilar to

different from




Ex. 10. Play out the following dialogue.

A: You are a school-leaver and don’t know what to be: a solicitor or a barrister. Ask your parent about their duties.

B: You are a parent of a school-leaver. Advice your child on the choice: to be a solicitor or a barrister.

A commercial lawyer

List of words

Read and learn the words

acquisition

приобретение контрольного пакета акций компании

agreement

договор, соглашение

competition

конкуренция

confer

1)давать; предоставлять; 2) обсуждать, вести переговоры 3) сопоставлять, сравнивать •

dispute

спор ,спорить

drafting

составление (сводок, таблиц, документов)

employment

служба; работа; занятость

enterprise

предприятие

finance

финансы, доходы

implementation

выполнение, осуществление, введение в действие

insurance

страхование

intellectual property

интеллектуальная собственность

merger

слияние или объединение компаний

negotiating

ведение переговоров о купле-продаже

objective

цель

property

собственность; право собственности

prospective employer

будущий работодатель

simultaneously

вместе, одновременно

supervising

контролируемый

to meet a deadline

закончить работу в назначенный срок

transaction

дело; сделка, соглашение


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