the act of obtaining and paying for an item or service
an argument or quarrel
the combination of two or more companies, either by the creation of a new organization or by absorption by one of the others
a means of protecting or safeguarding against risk or injury
Ex.2. Make up word combinations by matching the word from A with its best association from B and translate them.
Ex.3. Think of your own sentences with the following word combinations.
To give legal advice, corporate transactions, to advise on ,to represent clients, business-related disputes, a degree in , to depend on, to have a strong interest in, specialize in, to work in teams on, to meet deadlines, to work under considerable pressure, to vary, to draft documents and contracts, to tailor , to negotiate with clients ,to supervise the implementation of agreements.
Ex. 4. Read the text.
A commercial lawyer
A commercial lawyer gives legal advice to businesses of all sizes. The work ranges from general company/commercial work (such as helping new enterprises get established) to large, complex corporate transactions (including mergers and acquisitions), often referred to as corporate law. Commercial lawyers advise on specialist areas of law and represent clients where there is a business-related dispute.
Although this career is open to graduates of any discipline, a degree in the following subjects may increase your chances: law, law with a language.
Non-law graduates take a conversion course called the Graduate Diploma in Law (GDL) or Common Professional Examination (CPE), which takes one year if studied full-time. This route is as popular as starting with a law degree. Almost all firms appreciate the breadth offered by candidates who have a degree in another subject.
The next step after a law degree or the GDL/CPE is the Legal Practice Course (LPC), which can be completed in one year if taken full-time. Candidates then start a two-year training contract with a law firm.
An excellent academic record is important. Postgraduate degrees do not necessarily confer an advantage but, depending on the subject, may indicate to a prospective employer that you have a strong interest in a particular area of law.
Most commercial lawyers specialize in particular areas of law such as:
Commercial lawyers usually work in teams on complex and intellectually demanding work, requiring the ability to meet exacting deadlines and work under considerable pressure.
Work activities vary according to the type of case and specialist area but typically involve:
negotiating with clients and other professionals to secure agreed objectives;
supervising the implementation of agreements;
acting on behalf of clients in disputes and representing them in court, if necessary;
checking all documentation prior to signing and implementing and etc.
Depending on the size of the firm, a commercial lawyer either deals with several cases simultaneously or works on one large transaction at a time.
Ex. 5. Answer the questions.
Who can become a commercial lawyer?
What may increase your chances to become a commercial lawyer?
May non-law graduates become commercial lawyers?
How long does it take a non-law graduate to take a conversion course and become a commercial lawyer?
Do candidates start a two-year training contract with a law firm?
Is an excellent academic record important?
What does the work of commercial lawyers range from?
Do commercial lawyers have right to represent their clients?
Why do commercial lawyers usually work in teams?
What are the duties of commercial lawyers?
Ex.6. Decide if the following statements are True or False.
A commercial lawyer gives legal advice to businesses of all sizes.
Commercial lawyers advise on specialist areas of marriage law.
Graduates of any discipline can become commercial lawyers.
Non-law graduates have to take a conversion course called the Graduate Diploma in Law to work as commercial lawyers.
Most commercial lawyers specialize in all areas of law.
Commercial lawyers always work in teams.
Commercial lawyers are involved in drafting documents and supervising the implementation of agreements.
A commercial lawyer never deals with several cases simultaneously.
Ex. 7. Develop the following sentences.
A commercial lawyer is…
This career is open…
Non-law graduates take …
Almost all firms appreciate…
The work ranges…
Commercial lawyers advise on..
Most commercial lawyers specialize in …
Commercial lawyers usually work …
Work activities vary …
Depending on the size of the firm, a commercial lawyer …
Ex. 8. Make a list of commercial lawyers’ duties. Ex. 9. Write down key words, phrases and sentences from each paragraph of the text. Ex.10. Reduce the text to one fifth of its original length giving the most important information.
Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.
Ex. 2 Complete the phrase by matching the word from A with its best association from B. Translate the phrases.
to give up
Ex.3 Read the text.
In Britain, the vast majority of judges (that is, people who decide what should be done with people who commit crimes) are unpaid. They are called “Magistrates”, or “Justices of the Peace” or JPs.
There are about 30000 magistrates in Britain. They are ordinary people who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have “sound common sense” and understand their fellow human beings. Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is on a special committee in their area. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from as wide a variety of professions and social classes as possible.
Magistrates judge cases in the lower courts. They have no formal legal qualifications, but they are respectable people who are given some training. They give up time voluntarily.
A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates. They are called “High Court Judges” and they deal with the most serious crimes, such as those for which the criminal might be sent to prison for more than a year. High Court Judges, unlike Magistrates, are paid salaries by the State and have legal training.
There is no special training for judges. They are trained as barristers and preside in more serious cases.
Coroners have medical or legal training (or both), and inquire into violent or unnatural deaths
Clerks of the Court
Clerks look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom.
A jury consists of twelve people (“jurors”), who are ordinary people chosen at random from the Electoral Register (the list of people who can vote in elections). The jury listen to the evidence given in court in certain criminal cases and decide whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the person is found guilty, the punishment is passed by the presiding judge. Juries are rarely used in civil cases.
Ex. 4 Put the words in the questions in the correct word order and answer them.
How magistrates many there are in Great Britain?
Magistrates do any legal training have?
Who magistrates selects?
Does Magistrates draw from wide a committee the variety of professions?
Are unpaid Magistrates?
Magistrates cases they lower judge, don’t in the courts.
Judges do what deal with?
Judges are by the State paid salaries?
Judges trained as barristers are?
Judges do legal training have?
Coroners into violent inquire or do unnatural deaths?
Who after administrative looks and legal courtroom matters in the?
A jury does of people consist twelve?
What duties of are the a jury?
Ex. 5 Decide if the following statements are True or False:
In Britain the vast majority of magistrates are paid.
Magistrates have some legal training but they have no “sound common sense”.
Magistrates judge cases in the lower courts.
Magistrates give up time voluntarily.
A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates.
High Court Judges deal with the petty crimes.
High Court Judges have legal training.
They are trained as solicitors and preside in more serious cases.
Coroners have either medical or legal training.
Coroners inquire into natural deaths.
Clerks look after administrative and legal matters in the living room.
A jury consists of eleven people.
The jury listens to the evidence given in court.
The jury decides whether the defendant is guilty or innocent.
Juries are often used in civil cases
Ex.6 Develop the sentences:
Magistrates deal with…
Clerks deal with…
A jury consists of…
A jury may be…
Ex.7 Make a list of duties of judges, magistrates, coroners, clerks and jurors. Ex.9 Compare the duties of judges and magistrates. Find similarities and differences in their duties, using the following connectors:alike
Ex. 10 Make up dialogues.
A: You are a school-leaver and don’t know what to be. Ask your relatives about the duties of legal eagles.
B You are a parent of a school-leaver. Advice your child on the choice: to be a judge.
C You are a parent of a school-leaver. Advice your child on the choice: to be a coroner
D You are a parent of a school-leaver. Advice your child on the choice: to be a solicitor