М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова

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2 Professional Indemnity Insurance

We have provided full details of our current professional indemnity cover in our Pre- Qualification Questionnaire (PPQ). The terms of our cover are reviewed annually.

3 Resources and Specialist Knowledge

Expertise and Structure:

Each of our departments contains specialist partner-led teams ensuring that we are able to resource high quality specialist knowledge and provide a comprehensive service to our clients. Further details of our Projects Team are set out at (3) below.


We are committed to anticipating our clients' needs and meeting them. Fundamental to this is the commitment of each team leader to understand thoroughly the priorities and business of our clients.

Information Technology:

We have made significant investment in our information technology systems in order to give the support and resources that our lawyers need. Our systems enable us to transfer know-how into a searchable database using links to cases and legislation, to monitor workloads, measure outputs, and plan ahead more effectively. The stability and security of our system is of particular importance to our clients and to us

Projects at Anchor Robbins:

The Projects team is headed up by Jan Stephenson and brings together specialists in infrastructure, construction, energy, planning, and public sector. The team are able to draw on relevant expertise from elsewhere in the firm when required and hove exclusive access to a dedicated Professional Support Lawyer.

The team have had extensive experience in handling PFI (Private Finance Initiative) since its very beginning and have been involved in a considerable range of accommodation projects including schools, hospitals, courts, and light rail projects.

Note: legal executives are qualified to assist solicitors but do not practice as solicitors, procurement procedures, which may include use of a PPQ by which public authorities award contracts for the provision of public works, supplies, and services in accordance with rules and regulations.

Private Finance Initiative -PFI) - collaboration between government and private sector companies to fund and develop major public infrastructure such as roads, schools, and hospitals.

Ex. 3 Answer the questions:

  1. What specialists work for a law firm?

  2. What is the structure of a law firm?

  3. What does Commercial Property area incorporate?

  4. What does Company Commercial area comprise?

  5. What does Private Client area offer?

  6. What legal services are provided by a law firm?

  7. What are the functions of the specialist partner-led teams?

  8. Which idea illustrates the firm’s commitment?

  9. What does the firm do to better technology systems?

  10. Why are these systems of particular importance to the firm and its clients?

  11. What projects are developed the Anchor Robbins?

Ex. 4 Use the following phrases in the sentences and translate them into Russian:

relevant expertise exclusive access extensive experience

a comprehensive service significant investment specialist knowledge

  1. The litigation team___________________________ in handling

international disputes.

  1. Our firm has_____________________________ in knowledge management systems, enabling staff to access an extensive database.

  2. Clients are able to _____________________________ from dedicated teams in each practice area.

  3. Due to the expertise of our staff we can________________________ in commercial litigation in a number of jurisdictions.

  4. We can_______________________________________ to domestic and multinational clients, with particular expertise in corporate and finance.

Ex. 5 Complete the definitions from the text:

____________________________-insurance to protect your business against compensation sought by a client for harm or damage caused by mistake or negligence by an employee of your firm

____________________________-to move specialist knowledge

____________________________-to evaluate work done

Ex. 6 Fill in the gaps with prepositions:
____addition___, to be provided___ each of the respective areas, to provide legal services ___ clients, to be fundamental ___ ,to make investment___ information technology systems, to transfer know-how ___ a database, to be __ particular importance ___ the clients, to draw ___ relevant expertise____ elsewhere ___the firm, to have access ____, to be involved ___, to have extensive experience ___, to be headed___ ___ somebody.
Ex.7 Translate the following phrases into Russian and use them in the sentences of your own.

To be reviewed annually, to provide legal services, to understand the priorities of the clients, to monitor workloads, to measure outputs, to have access to a professional lawyer, to transfer know-how into a searchable database, to make investments into information technology systems, a range of accommodation projects, to understand thoroughly the priorities and business of the clients, to resource high quality specialist knowledge

Ex.8 Write down key words, phrases and sentences from each paragraph of the text.

Ex.9 Reduce the text to one fifth of its original length giving the most important information. Dwell on the structure of a law firm. Describe law firms’ practice areas and expertise

  1. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

  2. Retell the text according to its outline.


5.2.1 Вопросы к изучаемым темам
1. Our University

  1. Who may enter higher educational establishments?

  2. Who gets grants?

  3. How many faculties and departments are there at your University and what are they?

  4. How often do the external students come to the University?

  5. What subjects do you study?

  6. Is it easy to study by correspondence? (to be an external student).

  7. What do you do during examination sessions?

  8. Who encouraged you in your desire to enter our University?

  9. Explain the reasons of your choice of the educational establishment and the faculty?

  10. What is the perspective of your future job?

  11. Do you think education is in demand in modern world? Why?

  12. What is the reason for you to get higher education?

  13. Is education of any significance in the village, small settlement, and city?

  14. What are your personal educational demands and requirements?

  15. Where can you apply your abilities at the University?

2. Types of Legal Professions

1. Solicitors

  1. How many solicitors are there in Great Britain?

  2. Do solicitors make the smallest branch of legal professions in England?

  3. Where can you find a solicitor?

  4. What do solicitors do?

  5. May solicitors appear as advocates in higher courts?

  6. Where can a solicitor appear as a lawyer?

  7. What cases can a solicitor represent in a court?

  8. What education do solicitors need?

  9. How long do solicitors work as “clerks”?

  10. What exam do solicitors pass?

  11. Solicitors must be British Commonwealth citizens, mustn’t they?

2. Barristers

  1. How many types of lawyers do you know?

  2. Are barristers experts in the interpretation of the Law?

  3. What do barristers engage in?

  4. Do barristers advise on easy points?

  5. May barristers appear as advocates before the High Court?

  6. What do barristers wear in the court?

  7. Why are barristers untouchable figures?

  8. How can you meet a barrister?

  9. Are barristers members of one of four Inns of Court in London?

  10. What exams do barristers pass?

  11. How long must they serve their apprenticeship?

  12. Do people pay for barristers’ advice?

  13. Barristers can not carry on any other profession or business, can they?

3. Magistrates, Judges, Coroners, Clerks to the Court and Jury

  1. What kind of judges is unpaid in Britain?

  2. How are the Magistrates selected?

  3. May the Magistrates judge cases in the High Court?

  4. Do the Magistrates get high salaries?

  5. Is it necessary to have any special education to become a Coroner?

  6. What are Coroner’s duties?

  7. What are the duties of the Court Clerk?

  8. Are the Court Clerks legally qualified?

  9. How many people do the Jury consist of?

  10. What do the jurors decide?

  11. Are the Juries used in civil or criminal cases?

3.Legislative Process in Belarus

  1. What are the major sources of law in Belarus?

  2. Who has the right of legislative initiative in Belarus?

  3. Which House does new legislation usually start in?

  4. Where is the bill referred afterwards if the President does not agree with the text of the draft law?

  5. When is the draft law approved?

  6. Has the President the right to veto the draft law?

  7. What other documents have the power of law in Belarus?

4. Lawmaking Process in the USA

  1. What is the structure of the US congress?

  2. Who may initiate new legislation?

  3. Where is the bill first introduced?

  4. Who initiates hearings on the bill?

  5. What are these hearings for?

  6. Where is the bill referred afterwards if the standing committee passes the bill?

  7. What is the next stage of passing the bill?

  8. Is the process of committee hearings and general debate the same in the Senate?

  9. What happens in cases of disagreement?

  10. What committees examine the bill if it is passed by the Senate?

  11. Who is the bill signed by?

  12. What is the last stage of passing the bill?

  13. The president doesn’t have the right to veto the bill, does he?

  14. Can a bill still become a law if the president vetoes it?

5. Lawmaking Process in Great Britain

  1. Where does a new legislation start in Britain?

  2. How many stages does a bill pass?

  3. Is the first reading formal? What is the first reading for?

  4. What is the second reading for?

  5. Who examines the bill in detail after the second reading?

  6. Where does the report stage take place?

  7. Where does the bill go to after the third reading?

  8. Who considers the amendments made to a bill by the House of Lords?

  9. What happens if the House of Commons do not agree?

  10. Who prevails in the event of persistent disagreement between the two houses?

  11. Where does the bill finally go to?

  12. Is the royal assent merely a formality?

  13. Could the Queen refuse her consent?

  14. Who has the right of veto in Great Britain?

  1. The Court System of the Republic of Belarus

1. Are Belarusian judges elected or appointed?

2. What stages does the court system have?

3. Which is the highest court in Belarus?

4. What functions does the court of the first instance have?

5. What are the functions of the court of the second instance?

  1. The Court System of Great Britain

  1. What are the main kinds of British courts?

  2. What cases does the magistrates’ court deal with?

  3. Where do serious criminal cases go?

  4. Which courts deal with civil cases?

  5. Where are the criminal appeals heard?

  6. Which is the highest court of appeal in England?

  7. What cases do coroners’ courts investigate?

  8. What cases do tribunals deal with?

8. The Court System of the USA

1. How does the American court system function?

2. Can we find two identical court systems in the states of the USA?

3. What are the duties of the federal courts?

4. Where can Americans sue or be sued?

5. How are the federal courts organized?

6. What are appellate courts in the USA?
9.My Future Profession Is a Lawyer

1. What faculty do you study at?

2. What subjects do you study?

3. What is your favourite subject?

4. What subject do you consider to be the most difficult (the sim­plest) one? Why?

5. What is the definition of law?

6. When does a person appeal to the court?

7. How can professional skills of a lawyer be used?

8. What do lawyers do in national economy?

9. Where can graduates from Law Department work?

10. Where would you like to work after the graduation?
10.Sources of Modern Law

  1. How many traditions of law do you know?

  2. What are they?

  3. Where does Common law prevail?

  4. Where has common law taken its name from?

  5. Do judges just apply the law?

  6. What is the main idea of the doctrine of precedent?

  7. What is the other name for continental systems?

  8. What have they resulted from?

  9. What is the main idea of the Continental systems?

  10. What were the reasons for making new laws?

  11. Are there similarities among systems within the Continental tradition?

  12. What is the difference between Common law and Continental law?

11.Similarities and Major Differences of English and American Law Systems

  1. Do English and American law systems look similar?

  2. Is Anglo-American defendant asked any questions at the trial?

  3. How will the question of guilt or innocence be decided in a serious case?

  4. Is English law system so different from American that it may seem an entirely different legal world?

  5. What are two different ways of selection of the jury?

  6. Can the defence challenge jurors in England?

  7. Why can completely unsuitable people serve as jurors in England?

  8. Do all people who appear for jury service behave responsibly?

  9. What does the second difference between an American and an English trial concern?

  10. Is it a criminal offense for jurors to disclose what went on in the jury room both in England and the USA?

  11. Is the third difference between a criminal trial in England and United States about limits on the media?

  12. What punishments are imposed on editors and reporters in England and the USA?

  13. Is televising court proceedings a criminal offence in England?

  14. Will the ban on television cameras in English criminal trials remain in place after the experiment in Scotland?

12.Role of Judge in criminal trials in England and the USA

  1. What is the position of the judge in criminal trial in England and the USA?

  2. Can the English judge give the jury a direction?

  3. What experience gave Americans deep and lasting distrust of dominant judges?

  4. Are the judges chosen by election in the United States?

  5. Are English Judges still appointed by the Queen?

  6. What do many English barristers want even more than to get rich?

  7. What rules should a barrister follow to become a Judge in England?

  8. Are English and American procedures often criticized for the same reasons?

13.The Civil Law

  1. What rights and liabilities does the Civil law define?

  2. What are the main categories of English civil law?

  3. Is payment of money to the government in the form of a fine required, when one person recovers money from another?

  4. When may the contractor be sued in court?

  5. When does the plaintiff ask the court to order the de­fendant to pay?

  6. How does violation of an injunction change the action?

  7. What is called an out-of-court settlement?

  8. What is the main argument in a civil court, once the plaintiff has shown that the defendant is liable?

14.The Criminal Law

1. What are the two important elements of a crime which the prosecution must prove?

2. What is the difference between a defense and mitigation?

3. What are three defenses?

4. When is a person found not guilty?

5. What kinds of human behavior are regulated by laws?

6. Why is the Criminal Law one of the fastest growing areas of the law?

  1. What is the problem with unwritten contracts?

  2. What problems of evidence can arise?

  3. What are the basic principles of English contract law?

  4. When is it possible to claim damages for mental distress caused by the breach of contract?

  5. How is it possible to avoid the differences of law and custom between the countries?


5.3.1Лексический минимум по изучаемым темам

1. Our University:

  1. education

  2. a student of education

  3. to enter an Institute

  4. a school

  5. an establishment

  6. a department

  7. geographical

  8. biological

  9. to study

  10. a study

  11. tutorial

  12. to attend lectures

  13. to take notes of the lectures

  14. a subject

  15. a term

  16. to take an exam

  17. to pass an exam

  18. to fail in an exam

  19. an internal student

  20. an external student

  21. an extra - mural department

  22. free of charge

  23. to miss classes

  24. a school - leaver


студент - педагог

поступить в институт


учреждение, заведение






практическое занятие

посещать лекции-

записывать лекции



сдавать экзамен

сдать экзамен

провалить экзамен

студент - очник

cтудент – заочник

заочное отделение


пропускать занятия

выпускник школы

2. Types of Legal Professions

1. Solicitors

  1. a solicitor

солиситор, стряпчий

  1. to deal with something

иметь дело с

  1. a will


  1. a client


  1. to increase

возрастать, увеличиваться; расти

  1. to prepare

готовить, подготавливать

  1. to work on something

работать над чем-либо

  1. a case

судебное дело; случай, прецедент

  1. to advise


  1. defense


  1. litigation

тяжба; судебный процесс

  1. an agent

представитель; доверенное лицо

  1. to qualify

получать какую-л. профессию

  1. to include

включать в себя, содержать в себе

  1. to pass an exam

сдать экзамен

  1. a clerk

клерк ,солиситор-практикант

  1. a barrister

адвокат, барристер

  1. to defend

защищать на суде

  1. to prosecute

преследовать в судебном или уголовном порядке

  1. to specialize in


  1. proceedings

иск, обращение за судебной помощью

  1. to preside


  1. QC (Queen's Counsel)

королевский адвокат

  1. to engage in

заниматься чем-л.

  1. to advise on

советовать(ся), консультировать(ся)

  1. higher court

суд вышестоящей инстанции

  1. a wig


  1. a gown


  1. Inns of Court

"Судебные инны" (четыре английские школы подготовки барристеров)

  1. to be responsible for

быть ответственным за

  1. apprenticeship

учение; ученичество

  1. to accept a case

принимать, брать; соглашаться

  1. fee

вознаграждение, гонорар

  1. to carry on

продолжать, заниматься

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