М. М. Ахрамович, С. С. Дроздова, О. В. Евдокимова, Л. М. Ушакова



страница4/39
Дата11.05.2016
Размер4.35 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   39

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1. interference

вмешательство

2. destruction

разрушение

3. ecological imbalance

нарушение экологического равновесия

4. to go beyond

превосходить, выходить за

5. urgency

срочность

6. densely populated

густонаселенный

7. to exert a heavy load

оказывать большую нагрузку

8. to endanger

подвергать опасности

With the development of civilization man’s interference in nature increases leading to various negative changes in the environment. Among the negative factors that result in the destruction of ecological systems are the pollution of water and air and destruction of natural landscapes.

Ecological imbalance has become a global problem, drawing attention of practically all countries.

It is evident that owing to global nature and extreme complexity of the problem protection of the environment goes beyond the scientific, technological and economic abilities of even the best developed countries, if taken separately. The consideration of, for example transport of pollutants across state frontiers presupposes bilateral and multilateral cooperation of governments, public and international organizations.

Special urgency and complexity acquire the question of large-scale environmental protection in densely populated Europe where developed industry exerts a heavy load on all environmental components. The state of the environment in the USA and Canada also causes serious concern.

Due to the extreme significance of the problem more and more often suggestions are put forward about creating a system of international ecological security. Such a system presupposes a systematic analysis of global ecological situation, as well as trying to answer the following questions: at what point will nature cease to tolerate man? What amount of which resources can man use each year without endangering the environment? It also includes research and development of problems of a purely applied nature, such as international projects to develop no-waste technologies, ecologically clean production processes, improved technologies to purify water and air, alternative energy sources, methods for the rehabilitation of the environment.

Global monitoring of the environment would make it possible to isolate ecologically endangered areas on the planet. On the same level there should be a special world service concerned with elimination of large-scale ecological disasters, like forest fires, big oil slicks, accidents at major chemical factories or nuclear power plants.

The creation of a system of international ecological security cannot be delayed as the problem of environmental pollution poses much threat to humanity as could a nuclear war.


Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. environment

a) авария, катастрофа

2. pollution

b) чрезвычайный, крайний

3. extreme

c) утечка нефти

4. presuppose

d) загрязнение

5. significance

e) окружающая среда

6. to create

f) угроза

7. elimination

g) важность, значение

8. disaster

h) предполагать

9. oil slick

i) создавать

10. threat

j) устранение, уничтожение



Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Многостороннее сотрудничество, нарушение экологического равновесия, окружающая среда, лесные пожары, атомные электростанции, экологическая безопасность, угроза человечеству, экологическая катастрофа, подвергать опасности, превосходить, разрушение, срочность, прекращать, терпеть.


Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

  1. Man’s interference in nature poses no problem to the environment. It helps to preserve natural landscapes and doesn’t affect water and air.

  2. The problem of ecological imbalance can be settled by by separate countries, especially highly developed ones.

  3. Special urgency and complexity acquire the questions of large-scale environmental protection in densely populated Europe.

  4. The state of the environment in the USA and Canada is quite satisfactory and causes no serious concern.

  5. Global monitoring of the environment would make it possible to isolate ecologically endangered areas on the planet.

  6. The creation of a system of international ecological security cannot be delayed as the problem of environmental pollution poses as much threat to humanity as could a nuclear war.


Ex.4. Answer the questions:

  1. What negative factors does man’s interference in nature lead to?

  2. Ecological imbalance has become a global problem, drawing attention of practically all countries, hasn’t it?

  3. Why does the problem of ecological imbalance go beyond scientific technological and economic abilities of even the best developed countries, if taken separately?

  4. What can you say about the problem of large-scale environmental protection in Europe?

  5. What suggestions are put forward more often? Why?

  6. What does a system of global ecological security presuppose?

  7. What does a system of global ecological security include?

  8. What would global monitoring of the environment make it possible to do?

  9. What other world service should there be on the same level?

  10. The creation of a system international ecological security cannot be delayed, can it? Why not?


Ex.5.Complete the sentences:

  1. It is evident that owing to global nature…

  2. Special With the development of civilization man’s interference in nature…

  3. Ecological imbalance has become…

  4. urgency and complexity acquire…

  5. Due to the extreme significance of the problem…

  6. Such a system presupposes a systematic analysis…

  7. It also includes research and development of problems…

  8. Global monitoring of the environment would make it possible…

  9. The creation of a system of international ecological security…


Ex.6.Make up a plan of the text and retell it.


BELARUS ECONOMY

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.acid soil (n)

кислая почва

2.combustible slates (n)

горючий сланец

3.arable land (n)

пахотная земля

4.peat (n)

торф

5.loam (n)

жирная глина

6.fire-resistant and refractory clay (n)

огнеупорная глина

7.amalgamation (n)

объединение

8.potassium salts (n)

калийные соли

9.backbone (n)

основа

The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of Europe, on the crossroads of trade ways between West and East, North and South, in the East European Plain. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create favorable conditions for habitation of population, building industrial enterprises.

The territory of the Republic of Belarus covers 207.6 thousand square kilometers. Minsk is the capital of the Republic of Belarus.

The total population of the republic reached about 10 million people. The Republic of Belarus consists of six regions with centers in the cities of Minsk, Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Mogilyov, which are further divided into 118 rural districts, 102 towns and over 24 thousand townships and villages.

Most of Belarus territory is farming land and in the past Belarus was mainly an agricultural country. The lands here are not very rich. Four-fifth of its arable land is constituted by acid soil which needs constant improvement. Today agriculture specializes in meat and milk production. The main crops grown here are potatoes, grain, flax and vegetables.

Belarus is not rich in mineral resources. There are some deposits of petroleum, combustible slates, brown coal, ferrous and non-ferrous ore, dolomites, potassium salts on the lands of the republic. The reserves of peat, fire-resistant and refractory clay, loam and sand for the manufacture of glass, various construction materials are great.

The backbone of Belarus economy is constituted by industry. The industry produces nearly 70% of GNP. The main branches are motor industry, manufacture of tractors, and agricultural engineering, machine-tool industry, and manufacture of bearings, electronics and electrical industry, manufacture and refining of petroleum, mining, manufacture of synthetic fibers, mineral fertilizers, radio engineering products, pharmaceutical industry, manufacture of construction materials, light industry and food-processing industry.

Over 100 large enterprises are the basis of Belarus economy. These are such large plants as Minsk Tractor Plant, the Refrigerator Producing Amalgamation Atlant, the TV sets Producing Amalgamation Gorizont, Belarus Amalgamation of Heavy-load Trucks Production BelavtoMAZ, Novopolotsk and Mozyr oil-processing plants, Zhlobin metallurgy plant, artificial fibers plants and many others.

The main trading partners are Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Italy, Latvia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Brasil, China, Argentina. Development of export potential, improvement of the structure of export and import, rational use of external financing are the main perspectives for the republic.
Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. habitation

a) фармацевтическая промышленность

2. improvement

b) зерно, хлебные злаки

3. crops

c) проживание

4. synthetic fiber

d) нефтеперерабатывающий завод

5. mineral fertilizers

e) сельскохозяйственная культура

6. pharmaceutical industry

f) агротехника

7. grain

g) минеральные удобрения

8. deposit

h) улучшение

9. agricultural engineering

i) искусственное волокно

10.oil-processing plant

j) залежь


Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Умеренно континентальный климат, лён, доломиты, благоприятные условия, мясное и молочное производство, создавать, промышленные предприятия, производство и очистка нефти, производство подшипников, внешнее финансирование, минеральные удобрения, производство строительных материалов, лёгкая и пищевая промышленность, нефтеперерабатывающий завод, торф, калийные соли, железная и цветная руда, производственное объединение.


Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

  1. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create unfavorable conditions for habitation of population, building industrial enterprises.

  2. The total population of the republic reached over 10 million people.

  3. Most of Belarus territory is farming land and in the past Belarus was mainly an agricultural country.

  4. One-third of its arable land is constituted by acid soil which needs constant improvement.

  5. Today agriculture specializes in meat and milk production.

  6. The main crops grown here are potatoes, grain, flax and vegetables.

  7. The reserves of peat, fire-resistant and refractory clay, loam and sand for the manufacture of glass, various construction materials are not great.

  8. The backbone of Belarus economy is constituted by agriculture.

  9. The industry produces nearly 63% of GNP.

10. Over 100 large enterprises are the basis of Belarus economy.
Ex.4. Answer the questions:

  1. What is location of the Republic of Belarus?

  2. What is its population?

  3. Is Belarus rich in mineral resources?

  4. In what production does Belarus agriculture specialize today?

  5. What deposits comprise our mineral wealth?

  6. What are the main branches of Belarus economy?

  7. Can you name large enterprises which form the basis of Belarus economy?

  8. What are the basic trading and economic partners of the Republic of Belarus?


Ex.5. Complete the sentences:

  1. The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of Europe, …

  2. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create …

  3. Four-fifth of its arable land is constituted by …

  4. The main crops grown here are …

  5. There are some deposits of …

  6. The main branches are motor industry, manufacture of tractors, and …

  7. These are such large plants as …

  8. The main trading partners are …


Ex.6. Make up a plan of the text and retell it.

AMERICAN ECONOMY

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.to extract (v)

извлекать

2. gross domestic product (n)

валовой внутренний продукт

3. to contribute (v)

делать вклад, способствовать

4. natural resources (n)

природные богатства

5. to involve (v)

включать в себя

6. manufacturing (n)

производство

7. to account (v)

считать

8.primary (a)

первичный

The United States ranks first in the world in the total value of its economic production. The nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) amounts to over $7 trillion. The United States economy is based largely on a free enterprise system. In such a system, individuals and companies are free to make their own economic decisions. Individuals and companies own the raw materials, equipment, factories and other items necessary for production, and they decide how best to use them in order to earn a profit.

The US economy consists of three main sectors: the primary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary economic activities are those directly extracting goods from the natural environment, including agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining. The primary sector contributes about 3 percent of annual GDP.

Agriculture accounts for 2 percent of the US gross domestic product and employs 3 percent of the nation’s workers. Yet, the United States is a world leader in agriculture production. The country’s farms turn out as much food as the nation needs, with enough left over to export food to other countries. About a third of the world’s food exports come from U.S. farms.

Beef cattle rank as the most valuable product of American farms. Other leading farm products include milk, soybeans, chickens and eggs, hogs, wheat, cotton. United States farms also produce large amounts of hay, tobacco, turkeys, oranges, tomatoes and apples.

A variety of natural resources provide the raw materials that support the economy of the United States. The most valuable resources are minerals, soils, water, forests and fish.

The United States has large deposits of coal, iron ore, natural gas, petroleum, which are vital to the country’s industrial strength. Its many other important minerals include copper, gold, phosphates, silver and zinc.

Secondary economic activities involve processing or combining materials into new products, and include manufacturing and construction. They account for 22 percent of the gross domestic product and employ 20 percent of workers. The leading categories of U.S. products are chemicals, transportation equipment, food products, non-electrical machinery, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, scientific and medical instruments, fabricated metal products, paper products, rubber and plastic products, and primary goods.

Construction accounts for 4 percent of the US GDP and provides jobs for 4 percent of the work force. This industry employs such workers as architects, engineers, contractors, bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, plumbers, roofers, ironworkers and plasterers.

The tertiary sector includes the commercial services that help industry produce and distribute goods to the final consumers, as well as activities such as education, health care, leisure, tourism and so on.
Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. secondary

a) нефть

2. soybeans

b) индейка

3. wheat

c) железная руда

4. iron ore

d) цинк

5. deposit

e) соевые бобы

6. turkey

f) пшеница

7. zinc

g) вторичный

8. petroleum

h) залежь


Ex.2.Give English equivalents from the text:

Валовой внутренний продукт, сырьё, окружающая среда, медь, третичный сектор экономики, строительство, переработка материалов, сантехник, сено, каменщик, химикалии, серебро, природные богатства, продукты питания, лесоводство, хлопок, жизненный, здравоохранение, оборудование, заработать прибыль.


Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

  1. The United States ranks second in the world in the total value of its economic production.

  2. The United States economy is based largely on a free enterprise system.

  3. The US economy consists of three main sectors: the primary, secondary and tertiary.

  4. The primary sector contributes about 5 percent of annual GDP.

  5. About a third of the world’s food exports come from Russian farms.

  6. United States farms also produce large amounts of hay, tobacco, turkeys, oranges, tomatoes and apples.

  7. The United States has large deposits of coal, iron ore, natural gas, petroleum, which are vital to the country’s industrial strength.

  8. Secondary economic activities involve processing or combining materials into new products, and include manufacturing and construction.

  9. Construction accounts for 7 percent of the US GDP and provides jobs for 8 percent of the work force.

10. This industry employs such workers as architects, engineers, contractors, bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, plumbers, roofers, ironworkers and plasterers.
Ex.4. Answer the questions:

  1. What system is the United States economy based on?

  2. What is a free enterprise system?

  3. What sectors does the U.S. economy consist of?

  4. What do primary economic activities include?

  5. What do the United States farms produce?

  6. Does the country have enough natural resources to support the economy?

  7. What do secondary economic activities involve?

  8. What does the tertiary sector of economy include?


Ex.5.Complete the sentences:

  1. The United States ranks first in the world… .

  2. The United States economy is based largely … .

  3. In such a system, individuals and companies are free… .

  4. The US economy consists of three main sectors:…

  5. Primary economic activities are those directly extracting goods from the natural environment, including… .

  6. Yet, the United States is a world… .

  7. The most valuable resources are… .

  8. Secondary economic activities involve… .

  9. The leading categories of U.S. products are… .

  10. The tertiary sector includes… .


Ex.6.Make up a plan of the text and retell it.

Каталог: bitstream -> edoc
edoc -> Учебная программа учреждения высшего образования по учебной дисциплине для специальности 1-25 81 02 «Экономика» 2014
edoc -> Вопросы к экзамену по курсу «Психология личности»
edoc -> Методические рекомендации по написанию работ
edoc -> II. Содержание дисциплины
edoc -> Тема Экономическая психология как наука
edoc -> Тематика курсовых работ по курсу «Психология труда»
edoc -> Рефератов по дисциплине «Психология рекламы»
edoc -> Вопросы к экзамену по дисциплине «Психология рекламы»
edoc -> Дифференциальная психология


Поделитесь с Вашими друзьями:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   39


База данных защищена авторским правом ©dogmon.org 2019
обратиться к администрации

    Главная страница