Прочитайте и переведите текст №1. Абзацы 2, переведите письменно



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Вариант 1

1. Измените число следующих существительных, произведя все необходимые изменения:

а) единственное число на множественное: a system, a father-in-law, a case, video, a barrister, a department, a crime, a city, a woman;

б) множественное число на единственное: knives, witnesses, offices, branches, duties, children, people, territories.

2. Поставьте все личные местоимения в объектном падеже и напишите соответствующие им формы притяжательных местоимений.

3. Образуйте степени сравнения следующих прилагательных: high, low, serious, good, important, narrow, wide, rich.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст №1. Абзацы 2, 3 переведите письменно.

Текст №1


The United States of America

1. The United States of America is the most powerful and the most advanced capitalist country. The United States has the third-largest population in the world (after China and India). In 2003, the population of the country passed the 280,000,000 mark. The capital is Washington, D. C. The United States proper (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) is situated in the central part of the North American continent. It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, from Canada in the North to Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Gulf of California in the South. In size, the United States ranks fourth among the nations after Russia, Canada, and China.

2. The continental part of the USA consists of four physical geographical parts: two highland and two lowland regions. The highland regions are the Appalachian Mountains in the east, and the Cordillera and the Rocky Mountains in the west. The five Great Lakes between the USA and Canada include Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The main rivers of the

USA are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande, and some others. The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climate zones.

3. The United States is an indirect democracy – that is, the people rule through representatives they elect. The United States Constitution, written in 1787, established the country’s political system and is the basis for its laws. The USA has a federalist system. That means that there are individual states, each with its own government, and there is a federal, or national, government. The Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government, other powers to the state government, and yet other powers to both. Within the national government, power is divided among three branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial ones. The legislative branch consists of Congress, which has two parts – the House of Representatives and the Senate. The President is the head of the executive branch and the country. The executive branch administers the law (decides how the law should be carried out). The judicial branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the Constitution. The system of checks and balances, established by the Constitution, is meant to prevent any branch from having too much power.

4. The United States is rich in natural resources. It is a leading producer of fuel – of oil, natural gas, and coal. Major industries include machinery, high-technology equipment, chemicals, aircraft, and grains. The US grows wheat, corn, and other crops and raises many cows, pigs, and chickens.

5. Выполните лексико-грамматические задания на базе текста №1:

5.1. Выпишите эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: высокоразвитая страна; простираться от … до …; климатическая зона; представитель; выбирать; политическая система; власть\полномочия; три ветви власти: законодательная, исполнительная, судебная; палата представителей; зависеть от; вице-президент; соответствовать конституции.

5.2. Выпишите 2 предложения, содержащие сказуемое в активном залоге. Подчеркните сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму.

5.3. Выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие сказуемое в пассивном залоге. Подчеркните сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

6. Прочитайте текст №2.

Текст №2


The Political System of the USA

1. The Constitution. The United States is an indirect democracy – that is, the people rule through representatives they elect. Over time, the vote has been given to more and more people. In the beginning, only white men with property could vote. Today any citizen who is at least 18 years old can vote.

2. The United States Constitution, written in 1787, established the country's political system and is the basis for its laws. In 200 years, the United States has experienced enormous growth and change. Yet the Constitution works as well today as when it was written. One reason is that the Constitution can be amended, or changed. Another reason is that the Constitution is flexible: its basic principles can be applied and interpreted differently at different times.

3. Federalism. The United States has a federal system. This means that there are individual states, each with its own government, and there is a federal, or national, government. The Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government, other powers to the state governments, and yet other powers to both. For example, only the national government can print money; the states establish their own school system, and both the national and the state governments can collect taxes.

4. Three branches of government. Within the national government, power is divided among three branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The legislative branch consists of Congress, which has two parts – the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress's main function is to make laws. There are 100 senators (two from each state) and 435 representatives (the number from each state is depending on the size of the state's population).

5. The President is the head of the executive branch and the country. The executive branch administers the laws (deciding how the laws should be carried out). In addition to the President, the Vice-President, and their staffs, the executive branch consists of departments and agencies. There are now 14 departments, including Treasury, State, Defense, Health and Human Services. Each department has different responsibilities.

6. The judicial branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the Constitution. There are several levels of federal courts. The Supreme Court is the most important. It has nine members who are appointed for life. The system of checks and balances, established by the Constitution, is meant to prevent any branch from having too much power. Each branch has certain controls over the other branches. For example, Congress makes the laws but the President can veto, or reject, a law and the Supreme Court can decide a law is unconstitutional.

7. Выполните лексико-грамматические задания на базе текста №2:

7.1. Выпишите из текста эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: представитель, голосовать на выборах, вносить поправки, федеральное (национальное) правительство, полномочия (власть), собирать налоги, законодательная, Выпишите из текста английские эквиваленты следующих слов и исполнительная, судебная ветви власти, зависеть от, глава, министерство обороны, министерство финансов, пожизненное назначение.

7.2. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие инфинитив. Определите формы и функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

7.3. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие причастие. Определите формы и функции причастия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

7.4. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие герундий. Определите формы и функции герундия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

7.5. Абзацы 3-6 переведите письменно.

Вариант 1

1. Измените число следующих существительных, произведя все необходимые изменения:

а) единственное число на множественное: a system, a father-in-law, a case, video, a barrister, a department, a crime, a city, a woman;

б) множественное число на единственное: knives, witnesses, offices, branches, duties, children, people, territories.

2. Поставьте все личные местоимения в объектном падеже и напишите соответствующие им формы притяжательных местоимений.

3. Образуйте степени сравнения следующих прилагательных: high, low, serious, good, important, narrow, wide, rich.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст №1. Абзацы 2, 3 переведите письменно.

Текст №1

The United States of America

1. The United States of America is the most powerful and the most advanced capitalist country. The United States has the third-largest population in the world (after China and India). In 2003, the population of the country passed the 280,000,000 mark. The capital is Washington, D. C. The United States proper (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) is situated in the central part of the North American continent. It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, from Canada in the North to Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Gulf of California in the South. In size, the United States ranks fourth among the nations after Russia, Canada, and China.

2. The continental part of the USA consists of four physical geographical parts: two highland and two lowland regions. The highland regions are the Appalachian Mountains in the east, and the Cordillera and the Rocky Mountains in the west. The five Great Lakes between the USA and Canada include Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The main rivers of the

USA are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande, and some others. The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climate zones.

3. The United States is an indirect democracy – that is, the people rule through representatives they elect. The United States Constitution, written in 1787, established the country’s political system and is the basis for its laws. The USA has a federalist system. That means that there are individual states, each with its own government, and there is a federal, or national, government. The Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government, other powers to the state government, and yet other powers to both. Within the national government, power is divided among three branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial ones. The legislative branch consists of Congress, which has two parts – the House of Representatives and the Senate. The President is the head of the executive branch and the country. The executive branch administers the law (decides how the law should be carried out). The judicial branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the Constitution. The system of checks and balances, established by the Constitution, is meant to prevent any branch from having too much power.

4. The United States is rich in natural resources. It is a leading producer of fuel – of oil, natural gas, and coal. Major industries include machinery, high-technology equipment, chemicals, aircraft, and grains. The US grows wheat, corn, and other crops and raises many cows, pigs, and chickens.

5. Выполните лексико-грамматические задания на базе текста №1:

5.1. Выпишите эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: высокоразвитая страна; простираться от … до …; климатическая зона; представитель; выбирать; политическая система; власть\полномочия; три ветви власти: законодательная, исполнительная, судебная; палата представителей; зависеть от; вице-президент; соответствовать конституции.

5.2. Выпишите 2 предложения, содержащие сказуемое в активном залоге. Подчеркните сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму.

5.3. Выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие сказуемое в пассивном залоге. Подчеркните сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

6. Прочитайте текст №2.

Текст №2

The Political System of the USA

1. The Constitution. The United States is an indirect democracy – that is, the people rule through representatives they elect. Over time, the vote has been given to more and more people. In the beginning, only white men with property could vote. Today any citizen who is at least 18 years old can vote.

2. The United States Constitution, written in 1787, established the country's political system and is the basis for its laws. In 200 years, the United States has experienced enormous growth and change. Yet the Constitution works as well today as when it was written. One reason is that the Constitution can be amended, or changed. Another reason is that the Constitution is flexible: its basic principles can be applied and interpreted differently at different times.

3. Federalism. The United States has a federal system. This means that there are individual states, each with its own government, and there is a federal, or national, government. The Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government, other powers to the state governments, and yet other powers to both. For example, only the national government can print money; the states establish their own school system, and both the national and the state governments can collect taxes.

4. Three branches of government. Within the national government, power is divided among three branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The legislative branch consists of Congress, which has two parts – the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress's main function is to make laws. There are 100 senators (two from each state) and 435 representatives (the number from each state is depending on the size of the state's population).

5. The President is the head of the executive branch and the country. The executive branch administers the laws (deciding how the laws should be carried out). In addition to the President, the Vice-President, and their staffs, the executive branch consists of departments and agencies. There are now 14 departments, including Treasury, State, Defense, Health and Human Services. Each department has different responsibilities.

6. The judicial branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the Constitution. There are several levels of federal courts. The Supreme Court is the most important. It has nine members who are appointed for life. The system of checks and balances, established by the Constitution, is meant to prevent any branch from having too much power. Each branch has certain controls over the other branches. For example, Congress makes the laws but the President can veto, or reject, a law and the Supreme Court can decide a law is unconstitutional.

7. Выполните лексико-грамматические задания на базе текста №2:

7.1. Выпишите из текста эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: представитель, голосовать на выборах, вносить поправки, федеральное (национальное) правительство, полномочия (власть), собирать налоги, законодательная, Выпишите из текста английские эквиваленты следующих слов и исполнительная, судебная ветви власти, зависеть от, глава, министерство обороны, министерство финансов, пожизненное назначение.

7.2. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие инфинитив. Определите формы и функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

7.3. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие причастие. Определите формы и функции причастия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.



7.4. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие герундий. Определите формы и функции герундия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

7.5. Абзацы 3-6 переведите письменно.

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