Situation ethics the new morality by Joseph Fletcher Ситуативная этика



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Гарри Трумэн ничего не знал о бомбе до своей инаугурации, которая совершилась после смерти Президента Рузвельта. Когда министр Стимпсон доложил Президенту Трумэну о том, что «самое ужасное оружие, которое когда-либо существовало» скоро будет готово, последний назначил Временный комитет, с целью определить, каким образом и в каком месте оно могло бы быть применено. Комитет составляли исключительно выдающиеся и ответственные люди. Большинство военных советников, хотя и не все, одобряли его применение. Уинстон Черчилль был согласен с ними. Крупнейшие ученые говорили, что не находят приемлемой альтернативы его использованию, но им противостояли столь же крупные ученые.

Admiral Leahy opposed its use altogether. Arthur Compton and E. O. Lawrence, among the nuclear physicists, wanted a warning demonstration first. So did Admiral Strauss. Assistant Secretary of War McCloy and Under Secretary of the Navy Bard agreed that the Japanese ought at least to be told what they were now faced with. On the other hand, intelligence experts said the Japanese leaders were "blind to defeat" and would continue fighting indefinitely, with millions of lives lost, unless something like Little Boy shocked them into realism. Subsequently, however, the U.S. Bombing Survey declared that the Japanese "would have surrendered prior to November first in any case."


Адмирал Леги был категорически против применения бомбы. Артур Комптон и Е. О. Лоуренс, физики-ядерщики, предлагали сначала совершить ее предупредительную демонстрацию. За это же решение был и адмирал Страус. Заместитель военного министра МакКлой и второй заместитель министра по морским делам Бард соглашались в том, что японцам следует по меньшей мере разъяснить, что им грозит. С другой стороны, эксперты из разведки говорили, что японские лидеры «слепо настроены идти до конца» и будут продолжать войну независимо от того, сколько миллионов жизней это будет стоить, до тех пор пока что-либо вроде «Малыша» не шокирует и не отрезвит их. Впоследствии, однако, Американская Экспертиза бомбардировок (U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey; в тексте: U.S. Bombing Survey) объявила, что «Япония капитулировала бы до ноября в любом случае» ("would have surrendered prior to November first in any case.").
In June the Interim Committee reported to the President, recommending that (1) the bomb be used against Japan as soon as possible; (2) it should be used against a dual target of military installations and civilian concentration; (3) it should be used without prior warning of its coming or its nature. (One of the scientists changed his mind, dissenting from the third point.)
В июне Временный комитет представил Президенту рапорт, в котором рекомендовалось следующее: (1) бомба должна быть использована против Японии как можно скорее; (2) она должна быть направлена против двойной цели – военных сооружений и сконцентрированного гражданского населения; (3) она должна быть использована без предупреждения ни о начале бомбардировки, ни о ее характере. (Один из ученых переменил свое мнение, выразив свое несогласие с третьим пунктом.)
A final discussion of these three issues in the report was held in the White House, with President Truman present, questioning but as yet undeclared. Also present were the Secretary of War, vigorously defending the report as a whole; the Assistant Secretary mainly opposed; General Marshall was for it, Rear Admiral Strauss against it; Scientist Enrico Fermi was for it, Scientist Leo Szilard against it. This meeting and discussion was it—now was the "moment of truth", the moment of decision.

Окончательное обсуждение этих трех положений рапорта состоялось в Белом Доме, в присутствии Президента Трумэна, пока только задающего вопросы. Также присутствовали военный министр, рьяно отстаивающий рапорт в целом; заместитель министра, в основном выступавший против; генерал Маршалл был «за», адмирал тыла Страус «против»; ученый Энрико Ферми был за применение оружия, ученый Лео Сциллард против. Так прошли собрание и дискуссия – теперь наступил «момент истины», момент решения.

3 F. Knebel and C. W. Bailey, "Hiroshima: The Decision that Changed the World", Look, June 7, 1960.

Index
(страницы – по моему печатному изданию)


Aaron, 28

Abelard, 112

Abortion, 33, 37-39, 62, 122, 124, 133, 135

Absolutes, 24, 30, 88

Adams, James L., 34

Adultery, 20, 73, 79, 142, 164



Affluent Society, The, 162

Agape, 15, 33, 49, 69, 79, 82, 89, 95, 104 ff., 148

Aggiornamento, 35, 55

Agricola, Johannes, 22

Akiba, Rabbi, 70

Ames (Amesius), William, 19

Anderson, Robert, 13

Androcles and the Lion, 161

Anglican Communion, 34, 36, 85

Anthropology, 44, 76

Antinomianism, 17-25, 38, 44, 122

Anselm, 47

Anshen, R. N., 50

Aquinas, Thomas, 48, 53, 66, 89, 111, 121, 150

Aristotle, 31, 35, 89, 96, 112, 145, 150

Arnold, Matthew, 35

Artificial insemination, 79, 126, 139

Atheism, 52

Augustine, 63, 78-79, 87, 111-112, 117, 153

Axioms, middle, 32
Bailey, C. W., 167

Bard, Ralph, 167

Barr, James, 105

Barth, Karl, 33, 62, 74, 149

Baxter, Richard, 19

Beach, Waldo, 104

Beauvoir, Simone de, 25

Bell, Daniel, 138

Benevolence, 63, 105

Bennett, John C, 32, 34, 64, 76, 146

Bendiam, Jeremy, 95

Berdyaev, Nicholas, 51, 143

Bernard of Clairvaux, 47, 112

Bible, 12, 15, 18, 22, 26, 30, 45-46, 49, 52, 60, 64, 70, 71-74, 77-78, 85, 91, 107, 125, 134

Birth control, 34, 122, 126, 131,139

Bitter Choice, The, 116

Black, Max, 48

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 28, 33, 38, 42, 58, 74-75, 80, 98, 149, 157-158

Bornkamm, Giinther, 74

Bretall, R. W., 61

Brightman, Edgar S., 58



Brothers Karamazov, The, 81

Bruckherger, Raymond, 141

Brunner, Emil, 27, 33, 45, 55, 58, 66, 70, 77, 93-94, 103, 131, 142, 148-149

Buchman, Frank, 24



Budd, Billy, 102

Bultmann, Rudolf, 12, 31, 33, 104

Burrows, Millar, 30

Butler, Joseph, 112


Caesar, 77

Cahn, Edmond, 32, 136

Calculation, 27, 64, 88 ff.,

114 ff. Campbell, Mrs. Patrick, 140

Capital punishment, 75, 123, 131

Casuistry, 16, 19, 27, 29, 35, 52, 54, 65, 67, 84, 98, 147

Catholicism, 13, 18, 21, 34, 38, 50, 71, 147

Chastity, 20, 140

Cherbonnier, E. LaB., 28

Christ. See Jesus Christians, 20, 31, 33, 88

Chrysostom, 129

Churchill, Winston, 167

Cicero, 77

Clarke, Samuel, 28

Cobb, John B., 46

Coffee, T. P., 35

Coggan, F. D., 104

Cohen, Morris, 41

Commandment, the Great, 27, 38, 45, 55, 74, 77, 96, 110 ff., 125

Commandments, the Ten, 22, 31 ff., 146

Communists, 74, 115

Community (society), 50, 83, 89 ff.

Compensationism, 35, 150

Compton, Arthur, 167

Confession, 18, 54, 55

Connell, Francis J., 132

Conscience, 21, 43, 52-56, 92, 137

Consequences, 37

Contextual, 14, 44-45

Cranfield, C. E. B., 104



Cruel Sea, The, 152

cummings, e. e., 11

Curran, C. E., 55
Daly, C. B., 11

D'Arcy, Eric, 5 3

D'Axcy, Martin, 103, 111

Data, 29, 43, 81, 84, 143, 152

David, King, 15, 85, 133

Davidson, J. A., 83

Davis, Henry, 150

Davis, Sammy, 91

Dead Sea Scrolls, 139

Deans, Jean and Effie, 73

Decisions, 11, 17, 48, 52, 109, 134-145, 153, 168

Democracy, 84

Descartes, Rene, 57

Dewar, Lindsay, 75

Dewey, John, 40-43, 159

Didache, the, 116

Disobedience, 99 ff.

Divorce, 83, 133

Dodd, C. H., 105

Dostoevski, Fyodor, 81

Doubt, 21, 48

Driberg, Tom, 24

Duff, Edward, 12, 96

Duty. See Obligation Easton, W. Burnett, 34, 140


Eavey, C. B., 78

Edwards, Jonathan, 112

Eichrodt, Walther, 72

Elert, Werner, 34

Eliot, T. S., 140, 157

Emotion. See Feeling Empirical, 41, 148

Ends, 120-133

Epistemology, 23 ff., 46-50, 52-55

Equity, 21, 99, 150

Eros, 79, 89, 104 ff.

Ethics, 12, 34, 50, 54, 158; Christian, 36, 45, 54, 123; non-Christian, 31, 155; situation, 13-14, 17, 50, 69; theological, 14, 33

Eucharistic, 156 ff.

Eudaemonism, 43

Euthanasia, 62, 74, 124

Evil. See Wrong Ewing, A. C, 28, 122

Existentialism, 22, 34, 66, 137

Expedience, 41, 125-126


Facts. See Data

Faith, 15, 27, 40, 43, 47, 92

Fall, the, 81, 151

Farraher, J. J., 153

Feeling, 79, 103-119

Feigel, Herbert, 48

Fermi, Enrico, 168

Ferris, Theodore P.,

122 Finn, Huckleberry, 53

Fitch, Robert E., 34

Fitting, the, 27 Fletcher, Joseph, 16, 34, 126

Fornication, 79, 139

Forrell, George, 154

Freedom, 22, 45, 51, 81-84, 102, 135, 137-138, 152

Friedman, Maurice B., 58

Friendship, 79, 104, 115

Fromm, Erich, 108

Fundamentalism, 28, 70,133


Galbraith, John K., 162

Gambling, 117, 124, 126

Game theory, 118

Gardiner, E. Clinton, 34, 163

Gilleman, Gerard, 147

Gleason, Robert W., 34, 78

Gnosticism, 22

Goethe, J. W. von, 52

Golden rule, the, 117

Good (right), the, 13, 27, 32-33, 50, 54, 59, 65, 133, 144

Good Samaritan laws, 82

Goodwill, 63, 105

Grace, 48, 52, 84, 152

Greeks, the, 42, 52, 68, 107

Green, T. H., 49

Griesbach, Eberhard, 35

Grose, T. H., 49

Gustafson, James M., 14, 32, 34, 147


Haring, Bernhard, 70, 147

Harvard University, 11, 16

Hatch, Leonard, 95

Hate, 63


Heart of Midlothian, 73

Hedonism, 42, 47, 96

Hefner, Hugh, 47

Hegel, G. W. F., 48

Heidegger, Martin, 53

Heinecken, Martin, 63

Hemingway, Ernest, 54

Herberg, Will, 51

Heschel, Abraham J., 19, 29

Heuss, John, 157

Hitler, Adolf, 33,98

Holofernes, 66

Holy Spirit, 24, 30, 51, 155

Homosexual, 20, 139

Hospers, John, 49

Howe, Reuel, 109

Humanism, 13, 38

Hume, David, 49

Humphreys, Christmas, 143

Hutchison, J. A., 155

Huxley, Thomas, 138 Hypocrisy, 106
Ibsen, Henrik, 141

Ideology, 24, 137

Idolatry, 25, 31, 72, 160

Importance of Being Earnest, The, 118

Indifference, 63, 82

Individualism, 50, 91, 160

International Christian University, 16

Intuition, 24, 53
Jacques, J. H., 34

James, William, 7, 40-43, 133

Japan, 15-16, 168

Jesus, 12, 23, 26, 46, 49, 58, 61, 69, 74, 85, 139, 140, 157

Jesus, Society of, 131

Jonathan, 15

Judaism, 17-19, 71-74, 91, 107

Judith, 66

Jurisprudence, 21, 99

Justice, 60, 87-102


Kairos, 33, 136

Kant, Immanuel, 28, 48, 51, 52, 64-66, 106, 115,

128, 130 Kasper, John, 144

Kaufman, Gordon, 34

Keenan, Alan, 3 8

Kegley, C. W., 61, 132

Kennedy, John F., 138

Kenyon College, 16

Kierkegaard, Soren, 104, 111

Killing, 37, 39, 55, 62, 66, 73-75, 123

King, Martin Luther, 138

Kirk, Kenneth E., 36, 73, 129,150

Knebel, Fletcher, 167

Knowledge. See Data Kraemer, Hendrik, 12

Kreuger, Ivar, 97
Law: canon, 36; code, 18, 21,45, 77, 85, 100, 138; criminal, 37; moral, 18-19, 37, 45, 46, 152; natural, 16, 21, 36, 71, 75, 80, 99, 140

Lawrence, E. O., 167

Lawrence, T. E., 98

Lazareth, William, 151

Leahy, W. D., 167

Leclercq, Jacques, 35, 139

Legalism, 17-22, 65-66, 73, 99, 128

Lehmann, Paul, 14, 34, 155

Lenin, Nikolai, 121

Lesser evil, 65—67, 113

Lewis, C. S., 15, 155

Lewis, Sinclair, 98

Libertinism, 22

Life, 39, 55, 62

Love, 15, 22,45,49,62, 69, 78,87, 110 ff., 155 ff.

Lowell, James R., 141

Lull, Raimon, 117

Luther, Martin, 22, 62, 64, 70, 88, 111-112, 135, 150, 153, 158

Lying, 26, 55, 65-67, 73, 123, 141
McCloy, J. J., 167-168

MacGregor, G. H. C, 122-123

Mclntyre, John, 157

Maclagan, W. G., 151



Major Barbara, 114

Malice, 63

Marcel, Gabriel, 24

Maria, Mother, 74-75

Maritain, Jacques, 51

Mark, The, 14

Marriage, 17, 79, 104, 123, 140

Marshall, George, 168

Marshall, Thurgood, 161

Marxism, 14, 51

Masturbation, 139

Maurice, F. D., 12

Maxims. See Principles Mead, G. H., 42

Means, 120-133

Melville, Herman, 102

Metaphysics, 40, 66, 143-144

Michel, Ernst, 35

Micklem, Nathaniel, 89

Mill, John S., 47, 95, 115

Miller, Alexander, 27, 124

Miller, Henry, 17

Miller, R. C, 64

Miller, S. H., 55



Mishna, 18 Moloch, 118

Monotheism, 72

Monsarrat, Nicholas, 152

Moore, G. E., 7, 52, 60, 147

Moore, Kenneth, 78

Moral Re-Armament, 24

Moralism, 137, 161 ff.

Morality, new, 11-13, 28, 34,77, 147, 153

Morris, C. W., 42

Mortimer, R. C, 101, 109

Moses, 28, 71, 75 Motive, 128, 156

Mowinckel, Sigmund, 72

Murder, 26, 33, 39, 73-75, 128, 130

Murder in the Cathedral, 157

Mutiny, 102


NAACP, 161

Nash, N. Richard, 13

Naturalism, 46, 76, 96

Neider, Charles, 53

Neighbor. See Love and Justice

Neill, Stephen, 104



Never on Sunday, 126

Newman, J. H., 20

Niebuhr, Helmut R., 27, 34, 50,61, 104, 122, 151

Niebuhr, Reinhold, 45, 61-62,93, 103, 151

Nominalism, 57

Nygren, Anders, 93, 103


Oaths, 72-73

Obligation, 27, 60, 74, 82,

95, 100, 144, 157

Ockham, William of, 57

Oldham, J. H., 32

Ontology, 25, 53, 65-66, 145

Optimum, 61, 101, 118
Pacifism, 83

Pallazini, Pietro, 30

Paul, 23, 30, 49, 60, 69, 75, 81, 109, 125, 151

Peirce, Charles S., 40-41

Perfectionism, 29, 108, 137, 151

Personalism, 14, 50-52, 98, 147

Petting, 139, 162

Pharisees, 18, 45, 70



Vhilia, 79, 89, 104 ff.

Phillips, Dewi Z., 16

Pieper, Josef, 35

Pierce, C. A., 54

Piety, 91, 122, 160

Pike, James A., 52, 66, 101

Pilate, Pontius, 41-42

Pilpul, 19, 69, 123

Pius XII, 34, 50

Plato, 103, 112



Pneumatikoi, 23

Positivism, 46—50

Pragmatism, 40-43, 96, 121, 147

Predicates, 58, 60, 61, 93, 99, 123

Principles, 18, 21-22, 24, 26, 27, 32, 36, 55, 60, 63, 71, 162

Properties. See Predicates Prophetic, the, 29, 151, 160

Protestantism, 13, 18-19, 21, 34, 38, 147, 151

Prudence, 35, 82, 88, 90

Priimmer, Dominic, 150

Psychology, 76, 93, 104

Puritanism, 20, 21, 127
Quick, O. C, 89, 103
Racial justice, 48, 91, 100, 138, 144, 161

Rahner, Karl, 34, 35



Rainmaker, The, 13, 65

Ramsey, I. T., 16

Ramsey, Paul, 14, 34, 35, 90,94

Rand, Ayn, 78

Rapoport, Anatol, 118

Rashdall, Hastings, 156

Rationalizing, 85, 102

Rauschenbusch, Walter, 91

Reason, 21, 26, 31, 47, 53, 68, 71,88

Realism, 57

Redlich, E. B., 106

Relativism, 30, 31, 43-46, 62, 76, 129, 147

Responsibility, 33, 42, 126, 138, 152, 155

Revelation, 21, 22, 26, 58

Revolution, 101

Richardson, Alan, 104

Right. See Good Roberti, Francesco, 30

Robinson, John A. T., 11-12, 32, 153

Roosevelt, Theodore, 125-126

Ross, David, 115

Rougemont, Denis de, 93

Royce, Josiah, 126

Russell, Bertrand, 20, 48, 155

Ryan, John, 38


Sabbath, the, 69-73

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 25

Sawyer, Tom, 5 3

Schiller, F. C, S., 42

Schopenhauer, Arthur, 129

Schweitzer, Albert, 83, 162

Scott, R. F., 136

Scott, Walter, 73

Scotus, Duns, 57

Secrets, 65, 80, 132

Self-defense, 37, 38, 39

Self-love, 82, 93, 110 ff.

Sentimentalism, 91 ff., 116

Sermon on the Mount, 76-77, 92, 108

Sex, 13-14, 17, 19, 22, 79-80, 104, 117, 124, 126, 139, 146, 163

Shaw, G. B., 114, 157, 161

Shires, H. M., 64

Sittler, Joseph, 34, 158

Situationism, 17, 19, 26—31, 33, 51, 136

Social gospel, the, 91, 151

Socrates, 107, 115, 120

Soe, Niels, 33, 131, 132



Sophia, 33

Sophocles, 31

State, the, 101

Stealing, 59, 124

Stein, Gertrude, 29

Steinbiichel, Theodore, 35

Sterilization, 62, 80, 139

Stevenson, Charles L., 58

Stevick, D. B., 83

Strauss, L. L., 168

Success, 42

Suicide, 66-67, 74, 97, 132

Sullivan, J. V., 130

Summary of the Law. See Commandment, the Great Summum honum, the, 31, 43

Supreme Court, 47, 76

Systems (nonsystems), 11, 18, 41, 43, 54, 94, 134, 150

Szilard, Leo, 168
Talmud, 148

Temple, William, 8, 27, 32, 52, 58, 59, 93-94, 126

Theology, 54, 141; moral, 19, 31, 35, 37, 49, 54, 123

Tillich, Paul, 8, 15, 33, 34, 46, 51, 84, 94, 142

Tolstoy, Leo, 91-92, 97, 116, 121

Torah, 18, 22, 45, 69

Toulmin, Stephen, 60, 156

Tragedy, 113

Truman, Harry S., 98, 167-168

Tufts, J. H., 42, 159

Twain, Mark, 20
Undershaft, Stephen, 114

Universals, 21, 27, 30, 66, 74, 121, 130, 142

Utilitarianism, 95 ff., 115
Value, 42, 48, 50, 57-68, 95, 125

Vidler, A. R., 12

Virgins, 140

Virtues, 61, 77-78, 92, 141

Vocation, 62, 82, 123, 157-158

VoU, Urban, 153


Waddams, Herbert, 109

War, 37, 83, 102, 113, 123, 167

Wedge argument, the, 130

Weimer, Homer, 144

Wells, H. G., 85

Wesley, John, 22

West, Charles C, 34

White, Lynn, 44

Whitehead, A. N., 7, 148

Whores, 18, 22, 78, 88

Wife swapping, 80

Wilde, Oscar, 59, 118, 142

Will, 103-119

William Brown, the, 136

Wizard of Oz, The, 138

Word studies, 105



Wrong (evil), the, 18, 38, 65-66, 123


1 Six nonlectures (Harvard University Press, 1953).

2 C. B. Daly, "A Criminal Lawyer on the Sanctity of Life", Irish Theological Quarterly, Vol. XXV (1958), pp. 330-366; Vol. XXVI (1959), pp. 23-55, 231-272.

3 The Westminster Press, 1963.

4 Quoted in A. R. Vidler, Witness to the Light (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1948), p. 13.

5 John A. T. Robinson, Christian Morals Today (The Westminster Press, 1964), p. 18.

6 Rudolf Bultmann, Jesus and the Word, tr. by Louise Pettibone Smith and Erminie Huntress Lantero (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1958), p. 84.

7 Quoted in Edward Duff, S.J., The Social Thought of the World Council of Churches (Association Press, 1956), p. 103 n.

8 N. Richard Nash, The Rainmaker (Bantam Books, Inc., 1957), p. 99. (Ричард Нэш. Продавец дождя.) См. также See also Robert Anderson's Tea and Sympathy (The New American Library of World Literature, Inc., 1956), esp. Act III.

9 Cited by H. A. Williams, "Theology and Self-Awareness", in A. R. Vidler, ed., Soundings: Essays in Christian Understanding (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962), p. 82.

10 "Lehmarm's Contextual Ethics and the Problem of Truth-Telling", Theology Today, Vol. XXI (1965), p. 474.

11 Ethics in a Christian Context (Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1963).

12 See a penetrating paper by James A. Gustafson, "Context Versus Principle: A Misplaced Debate in Christian Ethics", Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 58 (1965), pp. 171-202.

13 Morality and Beyond (Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1963), p. 39.

14 London: Geoffrey Bles, Ltd., Publishers, 1960.

15 Stand Still Like the Hummingbird (New Directions, 1962), pp. 92-96. («Замри как колибри»)

16 The prophetic J tradition gave way to the E-D tradition, with its precepts and laws.

17 Abraham J. Heschel, The Prophets (Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1962), pp. 225, 307-315.

18 There are, however, atypical works such as Richard Baxter, Christian Directory (1673), and William Ames (Amesius), De conscientia, eius jure et Casibus (1632).

19 Why I Am Not a Christian (Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1957), p. 33.

20 J. H. Newman, Certain Difficulties Felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching (Longmans, Green & Co., Inc., 1918), p. 190.

21 See warnings in Eph. 6:12; I Tim. 4:1.

22 See note 22, Chapter II.

23 Cf. Gabriel Marcel, Fresh Hope for the World (Longmans, Green & Co., Inc., 1960); see also Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament (Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1965).

24 Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism, tr. by B. Frechtman (Philosophical Library, Inc., 1947), p. 27.

25 (Philosophical Library, Inc., 1948), pp. 44, 122.

26 Being and Nothingness, tr. by Hazel Barnes (Philosophical Library, Inc., 1956), p. 625.

27 The Divine Imperative, tr. by Olive Wyon (The Westminster Press, 1947), pp. 132 ff.

28 Nature, Man and God (The Macmillan Company, 1934), p. 405.

29 The Renewal of Man (Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1955), p. 44.

30 (Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1963), pp. 60-61. Precedents are Samuel Clarke, Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion (London, 1706), and A. C. Ewing, The Definition of the Good (The Macmillan Company, 1947).

31 Ethics, tr. by N. H. Smith (The Macmillan Company, 1955), p. 8.

32 E. LaB. Cherbonnier, unpublished address, Trinity College, December 14, 1964.

33 God in Search of Man: A Philosophy of Judaism (Farrar, Strauss & Cudahy, Inc., 1956), p. 204.

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