Учебно-методическое пособие по аспекту «Устная речь» для студентов III курса факультета английского языка


Upbringing a child is not an easy task



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Upbringing a child is not an easy task

Upbringing children is a very difficult and responsible task. One’s life and fate depend on one’s upbringing to a great extent.

It’s a fact that happiness and wellbeing of children depend on the degree of love, understanding and approval their parents give them. Parents should be tactful and considerate with their children. They shouldn’t criticize them in public as it humiliates the children and arouses hostility on their part. Parents must take a good look at themselves, as, consciously or unconsciously; children pattern themselves on their parents.

If parents have certain traits they don’t want their children to inherit, they should do their best to get rid of them.

It is not wise to demand from a child more than he can give. In this case, parents can damage his/her confidence. The child may even develop an inferiority complex.

There is a term “difficult” children, such children are at war with themselves, and, consequently, they are at war with the whole world. Unhappy children these are! A difficult child is nearly always made difficult by wrong treatment at home. There must be no fear in children’s life, as only hatred can flourish in the atmosphere of fear. Fear must be eliminated from the life of children the same about corporal punishment while bringing up children, it should not be acceptable.



Adolescence is the most dangerous age. Teenagers are gaining a sense of dignity as and they do not bear humiliation. Parents should be especially tactful with their children at this age.

Glossary
to a great extent – very much

considerate, adj - - respectful

humiliate, v – to make someone feel ashamed or lose their respect for themselves

hostility, n - unfriendliness and not liking or agreeing with something

pattern on, v – to copy one’s habits and way of doing something

inherit, v – to have the same physical or mental characteristics as one of your parents or grandparents

inferiority complex - a feeling that you are not as good, as intelligent, as attractive, etc. as other people

consequently, adv.- as a result

treatment, n - the way you deal with or behave towards someone or something

hatred, n - an extremely strong feeling of dislike

flourish, v - to grow or develop successfully

adolescence, n - the period of time in a person's life when they are developing into an adult

dignity, n - calm, serious and controlled behaviour that makes people respect you


Discussion


  • Do you agree with the title of the story? Give your grounds.

  • What do happiness and wellbeing of children depend on?

  • Why should parents watch their behavior?

  • Sometimes parents are too demanding; they want their children to be the best. Do you think it is good to be too demanding? Give your grounds.

  • Have you ever dealt with “difficult” children? What do you think makes them difficult?

  • What is the most dangerous age when parents should be especially careful with their kids? Why?

  • Would you like to have children in future? Would you be a strict parent?

  • Do you think a man and a woman (both parents) should take equal part in bringing up a child? Who is more responsible for a child?

  • How would you describe a good parent? How would a child describe a good parent? Do these qualities differ much?

  • What do you think can parents do to prevent their children from being difficult?



Comment (agree or disagree, say why) upon the following quotations by famous people:


  • You don't have to deserve your mother's love. You have to deserve your father's. He's more particular.

*Robert Frost (U.S. poet, 1874-1963)


  • A child understands fear, and the hurt and hate it brings.

*Nadine Gordimer (South African writer)

  • The best way to keep children home is to make the home atmosphere pleasant.

*Dorothy Parker (U.S. short-story writer and poet, 1893-1967)


  • Be gentle with the young.

*Juvenal (ancient Roman poet)
Tick 5 most important as you think activities when bringing up children, account for your choice and use these hints in a topic of your own:


  1. Love your children unconditionally -- irrespective of whether they "behave nicely," clean up their room, and do their homework. Your love must go beyond this. Your children will feel it.



  1. Each day tell your children that you love them. All you have to say is three words, "I love you." If this is difficult for you, that is a sign you really need to say it.




  1. Speak and act in ways that give your children a positive self-image. Believe in your child. Believe in his abilities and potential. Say explicitly, "I believe in you." How do you know when you are successful at this? When your child says, "I see that you believe in me."




  1. Be a role model for the traits and qualities that you want your children to possess. Share your day with your kids so they know what you do and can learn from you and your experiences.




  1. Word your comments positively. Focus on the outcome you want. Say: "By developing this quality (for example, taking action right away), you will be more successful in life." (Rather than saying the negative.)




  1. Read great books to your children.




  1. Create a calm, loving, anger-free atmosphere in your home. Consistently speak in a calm and loving tone of voice. See, hear, and feel yourself being a calm person who has mastered the ability to maintain an emotional and mental state that is centered, focused and flowing.




  1. If you make a mistake when interacting with your children, apologize. Ultimately they will respect you more than if you try to deny the mistake.




  1. Every day, express gratitude in front of your children. Ask them regularly, "What are you grateful for?"




  1. When your children make mistakes, help them learn from those mistakes.






Unit 4 Sports and healthy way of life
Sharing Ideas


  1. Do you always eat healthy food?

  2. Do you ever read magazines or news articles about health? If yes, what subject(s) do you find the most interesting?

  3. Do you exercise? How often do you exercise?

  4. How can you reduce stress in your life?

  5. Are you good at sports? What sports are you good at? Do you often play sports?



Keeping fit and doing sports
The modern way of life, when people have little physical activity, use cars instead of walking, watch television for many hours, and work on computers is turning them into legless creatures. Although a lot of people are interested in staying healthy, not many people do very much about it. Only 10 per cent of adults take part in sport more than twice a week.

Some people argue that sports are not very useful. It takes a lot of energy and time. A lot of people prefer to watch sports competitions rather than take part in sports. The most popular spectator sports are football, hockey and figure skating. Most of the important competitions are televised, and people enjoy watching sports programmes on TV. But certainly watching sports events and going in for sports are two different things.

People nowadays are more health-conscious than they used to be. They understand that good health is above wealth. To be healthy we should avoid different bad habits that can affect our health. Smoking and drinking too much alcohol, are the worst ones. Smoking, for example, causes a number of heart and lung diseases, such as pneumonia and cancer. Besides, it makes your teeth yellow and skin unhealthy. Fortunately, in recent years smoking has received a lot of bad publicity, and fewer people smoke nowadays. Some companies don’t employ people who are smokers. Smoking has been banned in most public places because everyone agrees it does harm to our health.

Smoking and drinking are joined by less dangerous habits, such as eating unhealthy food, or even overeating. Of course, they are not quite as deadly as smoking or drinking alcohol, but they also affect our health.

One of the best ways to stay healthy and to keep fit is by going in for sports. Among the benefits of regular exercise are a healthier heart, stronger bones, quicker reaction times and more resistance to various illnesses. Besides, you can eat and drink as much as you want because you are burning it all off.

To be healthy, it is also very important to spend a lot of time in the open air. It is useful to go for a walk before going to bed, or to air the room.

It is very important to be fit and healthy, and it is necessary to take care of your health. Being fat, in fact, can cause real problems. It is harder for fat people to get a good job, or even to make friends. If you want to do well, you must be thin. That’s why we should go in for sports on a regular basis.

Sleeping eight or nine hours, getting up early, regular meals, a healthy diet and going in for sports is really a good way to live.

The most popular sports in Russia are football and hockey, skating and skiing, tennis and basketball. Among the benefits of regular exercise are a healthier heart, stronger bones, quicker reaction times, and less susceptibility to various illnesses. Scientists believe that if you go in for sport on a regular basis, it could even help you to live longer.

Glossary
legless, adj – lit. without legs

creature, n- any large or small living thing which can move independently, used to refer to a person when an opinion is being expressed about them

adult, n - a person that has grown to full size and strength

majority, n - the larger number or part of something

injuries, n pl - physical harm or damage to someone's body caused by an accident or an attack

televised, adj – shown on TV

health-conscious, adj – concerned about his/her health

essential, adj - necessary; needed

jog, v- to run at a slow regular speed, especially as a form of exercise

lungs, n. pl - two organs in the chest with which people breathe

publicity, n - the activity of making certain that someone or something attracts a lot of interest or attention from many people, or the attention received as a result of this activity

deadly, adv – bringing death closer


Discussion


  • Do you agree that people turned nowadays into legless creatures?

  • Why do people prefer watching sports rather than doing it?

  • Name some bad habits which affect our health in the negative way, prove you point.

  • What is one of the best ways to stay healthy according to the text? Do you agree with this statement?

  • Why should we go in for sports on a regular basis?

  • What are the most popular sports in Russia?

  • What are advantages of regular exercise?

  • What do you think is the most popular sport in the world?

  • What new sports would you like to try? How do you feel about extreme sports? Would you like to try any of these?

  • What sports do you like to watch live? Why?

  • What are some things people can do to keep healthy?

  • What disease frightens you the most? Why?

Study the following table. Choose one activity which you think is the most harmful and speak on it, proving your point of view:



ACTIVITY


RISKS TO YOU



RISKS TO YOUR FAMILY

Smoking


Respiratory illness, coronary heart disease, cancer




Respiratory illness, chest, nose, ear and throat infections. Your family’s risks are increased two to three times if you smoke.




Lack of physical activity


Coronary heart disease, strokes, high blood pressure, breathlessness, flabby body, little energy, stiff joints, osteoporosis, poor posture, overweight.



Lack of energy for your work; lack of energy for your children and grandchildren; a poor role model.




Overeating



Coronary heart disease, high blood

pressure, non-insulin dependent diabetes, constipation, joint pain, being out of breath. Your risks multiply if you eat too much animal fat, smoke, drink alcohol and take very little exercise.



Coronary heart disease,

development of bad eating habits, poor life expectancy But having a Healthy Lifestyle isn’t only about being the right weight for your height.


Alcohol addiction



Raised blood pressure, which increases the risk of Stroke; stomach disorders; depression and emotional disorders; cancers, particularly of the mouth, throat and gullet; hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver; malnutrition; accidents at home, at work and on the roads; suicide.


Violence, accidents (perhaps influenced by you); less to spend on food; poor role model for children; increased risk of divorce.






Comment (agree or disagree, say why) upon the following quotations by famous people:


  • Health is not valued till sickness comes.

*Dr. Thomas Fuller (an English churchman and historian)


  • Be careful about reading health books. You may die of a misprint.

*Mark Twain (U.S. humorist, writer, and lecturer)


  • Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a pauper.

*Adelle Davis (an American pioneer in the fledgling field of nutrition during the mid-20th century)


  • Quit worrying about your health. It'll go away.

*Robert Orben (an American magician and professional comedy writer)

Unit 5 Nature protection and Global WArming
Sharing Ideas


  1. What do you know about environmental problems?

  2. What types of pollution do you know?

  3. Which is more important, increasing people's standard of living, or protecting the environment?


Protection of environment
Environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in the modern world, and environmental protection has become a vital necessity for all people.

Our planet is in serious danger. One of the most important environmental problems in the world today is the shortage of clean water. Industrial pollution has made many sources of water undrinkable. Rivers, lakes and even seas have become poisonous. Thousands of fish die every year as a result of the illegal dumping of waste in rivers by factories all over the world.

Lake Baikal is one of the worlds’ largest and most beautiful lakes. It contains a rich variety of fish and plants, including 1,300 rare species that do not exist anywhere else in the world. However, they are being killed by massive industrial waste, which some factories still pour into the lake every day. A few years ago people thought that the supply of clean water was unlimited. Now clean water is scarce, and we are beginning to respect this precious resource. We must protect the clean water that remains for the sake of our children and grandchildren.

Air pollution is another important problem. In hundreds of cities and towns the concentration of harmful substances in the air is over ten times the admissible level. Every day a huge number of plants and factories emit lots of harmful substances into the atmosphere of big cities. The great increase in the use of motor cars in the last quarter of the twentieth century has caused an increase in a new kind of air pollution. Pollution from factories and cars poison the air we breathe, and is the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rain.

Acid rain can damage life in lakes and rivers and destroy forests. The greenhouse effect may also have disastrous consequences for our planet. It is already affecting several areas of the world with unusual weather causing droughts or heavy storms. The world’s temperature is going up and the climate is changing. Cutting down on emissions from large combustion plants and exhaust fumes from vehicles would help solve the problem. I think we should try and use alternative energy, such as solar energy and wind energy, and design plants and cars that run on electricity, a much cleaner fuel than petrol.

One of the most alarming environmental problems is depletion of the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun. Because of the ozone holes, the dangerous rays get through the atmosphere, causing skin cancer and other serious diseases. Many scientists think that these ozone holes are the result of air pollution.

The most urgent ecological problem today is the environmental safety of nuclear power stations. Nuclear pollution can’t be seen, but its effects can be terrible. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are. Nuclear waste also endangers people’s lives. People all over the world protest against nuclear tests and nuclear weapons. If we do not take any action, the possibility of a global nuclear disaster is very real.

Of course, we can’t help mentioning such burning issues as destruction of tropical forests and wildlife, overpopulation, and shortage of natural resources. The list of serious ecological problems could be continued.

Today environmental issues are much spoken and written about on TV, radio, and in the newspapers. If people want to survive, they must do their best to solve these problems. Fortunately, it’s not too late to save our planet. We understand that our environment is not just our home town, but the whole earth. The protection of the environment requires the cooperation of all nations. Governments should take measures that will help improve the environment.

There are a lot of environmental groups and international organizations, whose main goal is to strengthen cooperation among environmentalists from different countries. The most famous of them is Greenpeace, which combines the people’s efforts for peace with the huge and ever mounting movement for nature conservation. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is the name of another international organization that appeared in 1961. It has created or given support to National Parks on five continents.


Glossary
environmental, n – related to the air, water and land in or on which people, animals and plants live

acute, adj – here – very bad



pollution, n – damage caused to water, air, etc. by harmful substances or waste

poisonous, adj – very harmful and able to cause illness or death

dumping, n – getting rid of something unwanted, especially by leaving it in a place where it is not allowed to be

rare, adj – not common; very unusual

species, n – a set of animals or plants in which the members have similar characteristics to each other and can breed with each other

scarce, adj – not easy to find or obtain

precious, adj – of great value because of being rare, expensive or important

admissible, adj – FORMAL considered satisfactory and acceptable in a law court

emit, v – to send out a beam, noise, smell or gas

harmful, adj – causing harm

greenhouse effect, n – an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere which is believed to be the cause of a gradual warming of the surface of the Earth

acid rainrain which contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil

damage, v – to harm or spoil something

destroy, v – to damage something so badly that it does not exist or cannot be used

disastrous, adj – extremely bad or unsuccessful

drought [dro:t], n – a long period when there is little or no rain

emission, n – when gas, heat, light, etc. is sent out; an amount of gas, heat, light, etc. that is sent out

combustion – SPECIALIZED the chemical process in which substances mix with oxygen in the air to produce heat and light

exhaust fumes – the waste gas from an engine, especially a car's, or the pipe the gas flows through

vehicle, n – FORMAL a machine usually with wheels and an engine, which is used for transporting people or goods on land, particularly on roads

depletion, n – (a) reduction

disaster, n – (an event which results in) great harm, damage or death, or serious difficulty

destruction, n – when something is destroyed

overpopulation, n – too many people for the amount of food, materials and space available somewhere

shortage, n – when there is not enough of something

mounting, adj – gradually increasing

conservation, n – the protection of plants and animals, natural areas, and interesting and important structures and buildings, especially from the damaging effects of human activity


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