Global warming Global warming is potential increase in global average surface temperatures resulting from enhancement of the greenhouse effect by air pollution.
In 2001 the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that by 2100 global average surface temperatures would increase by 2.5 to 10.4 °F (1.4 to 5.8 °C), depending on a range of scenarios for greenhouse gas emissions. Many scientists predict that such an increase would cause polar ice caps and mountain glaciers to melt rapidly, significantly raising the levels of coastal waters, and would produce new patterns and extremes of drought and rainfall, seriously disrupting food production in certain regions. Other scientists maintain that such predictions are overstated. The 1992 Earth Summit and the 1997 conference of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change attempted to address the issue of global warming, but in both cases the cause was hindered by conflicting national economic agendas and disputes between rich and poor nations over the cost and consequences of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.
Warming of the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere that tends to intensify with an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and certain other gases.
Glossary enhancement, n – the improving of quality, amount or strength of something
estimate, v – to guess the cost, size, value, etc. of something
scenario, n – a description of possible actions or events in the future
cap, n – a small usually protective lid or cover
glacier, n – a large mass of ice which moves slowly
melt, v – to turn from something solid into something soft or liquid, or to cause something to do this
significantly, adv – important or noticeable
disrupt, v – to prevent something, especially a system, process or event, from continuing as usual or as expected
maintain, v – to keep a road, machine, building, etc. in good condition
overstated, adj – described or explained in a way that makes it seem more important or serious than it really is
attempt, v – to try to do something, especially something difficult
hinder, v – to limit the ability of someone to do something, or to limit the development of something
carbon dioxide the gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe out Greenhouse effect Visible light from the Sun heats the Earth's surface. Part of this energy is reradiated in the form of long-wave infrared radiation, much of which is absorbed by molecules of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere and reradiated back toward the surface as more heat. This process is analogous to the glass panes of a greenhouse that transmit sunlight but hold in heat. The trapping of infrared radiation causes the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere to warm more than they otherwise would, making the surface habitable. The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide caused by widespread combustion of fossil fuels may intensify the greenhouse effect and cause long-term climatic changes. An increase in atmospheric concentrations of other trace gases such as chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane may also aggravate greenhouse conditions. It is estimated that since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased 30%, while the amount of methane has doubled. Today the U.S. is responsible for about one-fifth of all human-produced greenhouse-gas emissions.
Glossary reradiate, v –to reproduce heat and/or light, or (of heat or light) to be produced
infrared, adj – a type of light that feels warm but cannot be seen
transmit, v – to broadcast something, or to send out or carry signals using radio, television, etc
habitable, adj – providing conditions which are good enough to live in or on
combustion, n – SPECIALIZED the chemical process in which substances mix with oxygen in the air to produce heat and light
chlorofluorocarbons – synthetic chemical substance, corresponds to Russian “хлорфторуглерод”
nitrous oxide – synthetic chemical substance, corresponds to Russian “азотистый оксид”
Recycling Recycling is the processing of used objects and materials so that they can be used again. About 60% of rubbish from homes and factories contain materials that could be recycled. Recycling saves energy and row materials, and also reduces damage to the countryside.
Glass, paper and aluminium cans can all be recycled very easily. Many towns have bottle banks and can banks where people can leave their empty bottles and cans for recycling. A lot of paper bags, writing paper and greeting cards are now produced on recycled paper.
Is the shortage of clean water one of the most important environmental problems in the world today? What are the reasons of it?
What is going on with air in hundreds of cities and towns of our planet?
What is the main reason for the greenhouseeffect and acid rain?
What may acid rain and greenhouse effect cause?
What is the solution of this problem?
What is one of the most alarming environmental problems?
Is the environmental safety of nuclear power stations the most urgent ecological problem today? Why?
What other ecological problems in different regions of the world do you know?
What environmental groups and international organizations do you know? What is their main goal?
How do you understand the terms Global warming and Greenhouse effect?
Do you think there are lessons to learn from nature?
Are there litter laws where you live? If so, what is the penalty for littering?
Do you think cars should be banned from city centers?
What are some types of pollution which are wide-spread in the place you live?
What are some ways that you can reduce pollution in this country?
What can you personally do to help prevent pollution? What can you do to make this world a better place?
Who do you think is more responsible for pollution, individual people or the government? Explain why.
If you could choose one alternative energy source to develop which one would you choose? Why?
Do you think overpopulation is an important environmental issue? Why or why not?
Comment (agree or disagree, say why) upon the following quotations by famous people:
Nature has no mercy at all. Nature says, "I'm going to snow. If you have on a bikini and no snowshoes, that's tough. I am going to snow anyway."
* Maya Angelou (U.S. poet)
The Laws of Nature are just, but terrible. There is no weak mercy in them. Cause and consequence are inseparable and inevitable. The elements have no forbearance. The fire burns, the water drowns, the air consumes, the earth buries. And perhaps it would be well for our race if the punishment of crimes against the Laws of Man were as inevitable as the punishment of crimes against the Laws of Nature--were Man as unerring in his judgments as Nature.
* Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (U.S. poet)
The day, water, sun, moon, night--I do not have to purchase these things with money.
* Plautus (Roman comic playwright)
Nature does nothing uselessly.
* Aristotle (Greek philosopher and scientist)
After you have exhausted what there is in business, politics, conviviality, and so on - have found that none of these finally satisfy, or permanently wear - what remains? Nature remains.
Walt Whitman (U.S. poet, journalist, and essayist)
The goal of life is living in agreement with nature.
* Zeno (Eastern Roman emperor)
Think of how we can prevent the environment from pollution. Fill in the chart with your ideas
Ways of solving the pRoblem
Unit 6 School Education in Russia, IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IN THE USA Sharing Ideas
Are most schools coeducational in your country?
Are there any subjects/classes you wanted to study but they weren't available at your school?
Do you know anyone who does not know how to read or write?
Do you think your school was a good one? Why/why not?
Should education be free?
Does your country provide a good public school system?
SCHOOLING IN RUSSIA, IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IN THE USA Russians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the constitution of the Russia Federation. It’s ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education establishment.
Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The stages of compulsory schooling in Russia are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of academic subjects.
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offer programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go into higher education. All applicants must take competitive exam.
All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are 17 or 18.
State schools are divided into the following types:
Grammarschools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools now also have some technical courses.
Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical.
Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with there hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical schools and learn some trade.
Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and art departments, commercial and domestic courses.
There are also many schools which the state doesn’t control. They are private schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them are boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further education.
Now the state in the United Kingdom provides a full range of free educational facilities. Those parents who send their children to private institution, and could afford it, are free to do so.
The organization of state schooling is not centralized as in the most European countries. Firstly, there is no prescribed curriculum. Secondly, the types of school available and the age ranges for which they cater vary in different parts of country. In each area Local educational Authority is responsible for education. At any public school no tuition fees are payable. State schooling in the UK is financed partly by the Governmental and partly by local rates.
Schooling is voluntary under the age of 5 but there is some free nursery school education before that age. Primary education takes place in infant schools for pupils ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools (from 8 to 11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle schools replace junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years. Secondary education has been available in Britain since 1944. It is compulsory up to the age of 16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily up to three years longer.
The private sector is running parallel to the state system of education. There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most private schools are single-sex until the age of 16. More and more parents seem prepared to take on the formidable extra cost of the education. The reason is the belief that social advantages are gained from attending a certain school. The most expensive day or boarding schools in Britain are exclusive public schools like Eton College for boys and St. James’ school for girls.
The American system of school education differs from the systems in some countries. There are state-supported public schools and private secondary schools. Public state schools are free and private schools are fee-paying. Each individual state has its own system of public schools. The federal government pays little or no attention to the schools.
Elementary education begins at the age of six with the first grade (form) and continues through to the eighth grade. In most states children are supposed to go to school until the age of sixteen (or until they have finished the eighth grade).
The elementary school is followed by four years of secondary school or high school as it is called there. In some states the last two years of the elementary and the first years of the secondary school are combined into a junior high school.
The programme of studies in the elementary school is different at different schools. It includes English, arithmetic (sometimes elementary algebra), geography, history of the USA and elementary natural science including physiology. Physical training, singing, drawing, and handwork (wood or metal work) are also taught. Sometimes a foreign language and the study of general history are begun.
Besides giving general education, some high school subjects are useful to those who hope to find jobs in industry and agriculture. Some schools give preparatory education to those planning to enter colleges and universities. Each state has its own university.
At the same time, educational opportunities in the USA are formal for many people. One per cent of American citizens from the age of fourteen and older can neither read nor write. Over two million American children do not go to school, and six million attend only the first grade. More than fifty per cent of school students do not finish high school.
Glossary concern, n- something that is important to you, or when something is important
compulsory, adj - if something is compulsory, you must do it because of a rule or law
vocational, adj - providing skills and education that prepare you for a job
establishment, n - a business or other organization, or the place where an organization operates
senior school – final school period
core curriculum – main group of subjects studied in a school, college, etc
intelligence, n - the ability to learn, understand and make judgments or have opinions that are based on reason
grammar school - a British school, especially in the past, for children aged 11-18 who are good at studying.
domestic, adj – belonging or relating to the home, house or family
boarding schools - a private school where you can pay to stay and receive meals
facility, n - an ability, feature or quality
prescribed curriculum - set group of subjects studied in a school
cater, v – to provide, and sometimes serve
tuition fees – money paid for schooling
voluntary, adj - done, made or given willingly, without being forced or paid to do it
nursery school – a school for children between the ages of two and five
infant schools – in the UK, a school or part of a school for children who are 4 to 7 years old
formidable, adj - causing you to have fear or respect for something or someone because they are impressive, powerful or difficult Discussion
What are the stages of compulsory schooling in Russia?
Can one enter a higher educational institution on finishing the 9th form in Russia? Why?
How and when can one enter a higher educational institution in Russia?
When do British children go to school? When do they leave it?
What types of British state schools do you know? Trace the difference between them.
Are there any types of schools in Britain which the state doesn’t control? What are they called? Are they different from other types? How?
How do you understand the sentence which says that state schooling is not centralized in Europe?
Is education compulsory under the age of 5 in Britain? What about further education?
What are the typical features of private schools in GB?
What types of school are most common for the USA?
What are the features of the elementary education in the US?
What is “high school”?
What does the programme of studies in the elementary school include?
In what way are some high school subjects useful to students?
What can you say about educational opportunities in the US in general?
What are the most vivid recollections of your school years?
Do you think schooling in Russia should be compulsory? Give your grounds.
What subjects would you like to add to the core curriculum in our schools?
Did you have any extra- curriculum activities in your school? Did you do any of them?
Comment (agree or disagree, say why) upon the following quotations by famous people:
The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.
*Aristotle (Greek philosopher and scientist)
Teachers open our eyes to the world. They give us curiosity and confidence. They teach us to ask questions. They connect us to our past and future. They are the guardians of our social heritage. Life without a teacher is simply not a life.
*Jonathan Sacks (the Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom's main body of Orthodox synagogues.)
Education is light, lack of it is darkness.
The education of a man is never completed until he dies.
*Robert E. Lee (U.S. and Confederate military leader.)
Fill in this table, account for your opinion and use these hints in a topic of your own:
in Great Britain
In the USA
Unit 7 Holidays In Great Britain, USA and Russia Sharing Ideas
Do you like holidays? Why?
Where is the best place to be for the holidays?
Which GB holidays do you know about?
What do you English people do when they have holidays?
British and American holidays Every country and every nation has own traditions and customs. English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. English people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December. Christmas Day is a family holiday. It is the time when all the family gets together round the Christmas tree decorated with toys and sweets. Children believe that when they are asleep Santa Claus comes with a big bag of toys. They often hang up large stockings for the presents. All families have Christmas dinners. They eat traditional dishes - turkey, duck, and pudding. On the New Year’s Day they watch the old year out and the New Year in. There are some traditions on New Year’s Day. One of them is the old First Footing. The first man to come into the house is very important. The Englishmen believe that he brings luck. This man (not a woman) must be healthy, young and pretty-looking. He brings presents - bread, a piece of coal or a coin. Another best-loved holiday is St.Valentine’s Day on the 14th of February - the holiday of love and affection, the day of sending «valentines» and giving presents to those you love «Be My Valentine» - Englishmen with these word ask to become friends or companion Valentines often are decorated with symbols of love - red hearts and roses, ribbons and laces. In England tradition of celebrating Easter is deep-rooted in the history of the nation. Easter is a church holiday. There is a popular belief that wearing 3 new things on Easter will bring good luck.
Traditionally Easter is marked by parades of people in bright new spring clothes are held on this day. Another custom is decorating eggs for children. Eggs are hidden in the yards little children believe that the Easter rabbit comes and leaves eggs for them. Easter candies are maid in the form of eggs, little chickens and rabbits. Halloween is the day or evening before all Saint’s Day. Children dress up in Halloween costumes and put masks over their faces. They go out into the streets to beg. People give them sweets, cookies and apples. A favorite Halloween custom is to make a jack-o’-lantern (the children scrape out a pumpkin and cut the eyes, nose and mouth). They light a candle inside the pumpkin to scare their friends.
There are so-called Bank holidays in the UK. Prior to 1834, the Bank of England observed about thirty-three saints' days and religious festivals as holidays, but according to the Act of Parliament in 1834, this was drastically reduced to just four: 1 May, 1 November, Good Friday, and Christmas Day. According to the Act of Parliament of 1871 there are 4 bank holidays (Public holidays in G.B. are called bank holidays because the banks as wall as most of the offices and shops are closed) Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday (Whitsun), December 26th - Boxing Day and May Day Bank Holiday. Other public holidays are Good Friday, May Day, Also there is a Pancake Day, April’s Fool Day and Mother’s Day.
People in the USA have holidays both, similar to those celebrated in England and special, nationally-coloured ones. Each of 50 states establishes its own legal holidays. But there are holidays, which are common to all federal offices. They are the New Year Day, Washington Birthday - "President's Day", Memorial Day, Independence Day and Thanksgiving Day.
There are also many traditional holidays such as St' Valentine's Day, Mothers' Day and Halloween. Perhaps the "two most American holidays" are the 4th of July and Thanksgiving Day. The Independence Day is like a big national party. It takes place through over the country: in neighborhoods, beaches or in parks. Some towns and cities have parades with bands and flags and many politicians try to give a patriotic speech if there are any listeners. But what makes this holiday exciting is the atmosphere of enjoyment. Families have beach parties with hot-dogs and hamburgers, volleyball, fireworks and rockets at night. The national birthday is also the nation's greatest annual summer party. Like X-mas.
Thanksgiving Day is the day for families to come together. Traditional foods are prepared for the feast - turkey or ham, cranberry sauce and corn dishes, breads and rolls, pumpkin pies. St' Valentine's Day, February 14th, is sweethearts' day when people who are in love express their affection for each other in merry ways. The cards may be different but the message is the same: "Will you be my Valentine?"
Halloween means ""holly evening". It takes place on the 31st of October. At parties people dress up in strange costumes and pretend they are witches. They cut horrible faces in potatoes and pumpkins and put a candle inside which shines through the eyes. People may play different games such as trying to eat an apple from a bucket of water without using their hands.
In recent years children dressed in white sheets knocked on doors at Halloween and ask if you like trick or treat. If you give them something nice - a treat - they go away. But if you don't they play a trick on you, such as making a lot of noise on your front doorstep.
Glossary custom, n - a way of behaving or a belief which has been established for a long time
stockings, n - a large sock which children leave out when they go to bed on Christmas Eve so that it can be filled with small presents
affection, n - a feeling of liking for a person or place
ribbon, n - long narrow strip of material used to tie things together or as a decoration
lace, n - a decorative cloth which is made by weaving thin thread in delicate patterns with holes in them
jack-o’-lantern, n - a pumpkin that has been hollowed out and cut with holes shaped like eyes, a nose, and a mouth, and lit with a candle inside, which is made at Halloween
pumpkin, n - a large, round vegetable with hard yellow or orange flesh
establish, v - to start something that will continue for a long time
common, adj - belonging to or shared by two or more people or things
neighborhood, n - neighbouring places are next to or near each other
band, n- group of musicians who play modern music together
fireworks, n - loud noise when explosive chemicals which produce bright coloured patterns explode
annual, adj – taking place each year
cranberry, n - a small round red fruit with a sour taste
affection, n - a feeling of liking for a person or place
pretend, v - to behave as if something is true when you know that it is not, especially in order to deceive people or as a game
witch, n - woman who is believed to have magical powers and who uses them to harm or help other people
bucket, n- a container with an open top and a handle, often used for carrying liquids
How do English celebrate Christmas? Do they celebrate the New Year?
How is St.Valentine’s Day celebrated?
What is Easter?
What are the features of Halloween?
What do you know about Bank holidays? Why do they have such a name?
Do people who live in different states in America celebrate the same holidays? Are any common holidays? What are they?
What is the Independence Day and how do people mark it?
How is Thanksgiving celebrated?
What is the message of the Valentine cards?
Are there any specific features of Halloween in the USA?
Are any of the British holidays celebrated in Russia?
Do you know any other typically British holidays?
Find some information about British holidays related to the Royal family.
Holidays in Russia Sharing Ideas
What holidays have disappeared in your country?
What new holidays do you think are needed in your country?
How many holidays do you have in your country?
What special foods are associated with your favorite holiday?
Do we celebrate any of the holidays typically celebrated in GB?
Russian holidays If you think about the most appropriate time to work in Russia, forget about May. First, there is a two-day celebration of May 1, which under the Soviets used to be the International Day of Workers' Solidarity and now is the Day of Labor and Spring. Then, there is May 9, Victory Day, marking the Russian victory in World War II. With a weekend in between and a couple of days taken off to round it out, many Russians do not appear at their work places for about a fortnight.
Apart from being an impressive loss of working hours for the national economy, Russian holidays are also remarkably contradictory, ideologically speaking. On June 12, a relatively new holiday, Russian Federation Day, is celebrated to mark the day in 1990 that Russia adopted a declaration of sovereignty. On November 7 and 8 the country still celebrates what under the Soviets was the anniversary of the 1917 Bolshevik revolution, which led to the creation of the USSR. Nowadays, the anniversary of the revolution is called the Day of Reconciliation and Unity.
December 12, Constitution Day, marks the adoption of the 1993 constitution, which legitimized the end of the Soviet era.
Nowadays, the New Year remains the biggest and the most popular winter holiday in Russia. However, following the collapse of the atheist regime, Russia started to celebrate Orthodox Christmas, which, according to the old Church calendar, comes after the secular New Year--on January 7. Russian people also celebrate, though unofficially, the so-called "old New Year," on the evening of January 13-14.
Hardly a month passes by before there is another holiday -February 23, Army Day. Historically this holiday has nothing to do with the creation either of the Soviet or the Russian armies. Rather, on that day in 1918, the Bolshevik leaders called on workers to take up arms to defend St. Petersburg from the White Guards, who were closing in on the city. Less than two weeks after Army Day comes the first spring public holiday: On March 8, the country celebrates the Women's Day, another Soviet holdover. The May 8 holiday originated with the German socialist Klara Zetkin, who began the International Women's Day (IWD) in 1911. The Bolsheviks adopted it after they came to power. Yet it was on that day that Soviet women expected to be presented with flowers, be taken care of and generally be treated gallantly.
Only two public holidays in Russia retain their original meaning and are equally loved by everyone in the country--New Year's and Victory Day. The New Year celebration was always a family occasion. And since the Second World War affected every family in Russia, Victory Day remains a sacred day for all, truly uniting the country.
In addition to the public holidays celebrated in throughout Russia, Daghestanis observe also some traditional holidays of their own. Being the followers of Islam and in accordance with their religious freedom, they celebrate Uraza-Bairam on the occasion of completing fasting in the sacred month of Ramazan, the 9-th month of the Islamic lunar calendar. Another major religious holiday is Kurban – Bairam, celebrated in 70 days after Ramazan. Before it thousands of Daghestan Moslems go on pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, the sacred places of Islam. These and other Islamic holidays are movable – that is due to the fact that they are based on the lunar calendar which is 10 or 11 days shorter than the solar, Gregorian calendar.
Daghestanis observe non- religious holidays as well. They are: Navruz – Bairam, an ancient folk festival which marks the beginning of spring, Holliday of the first Furrow is mostly celebrated by the rural population to mark the beginning of a new agricultural year, Day of shepherds, a professional holiday of shepherds held in Summer, Festival of flowers which is customarily held in the Akhty district in May, Festival of Sweet Cherry, usually celebrated in the Kasumkent district in June etc. In recent years it has become a tradition to celebrate the White Cranes Day in commemoration of the fallen in the battle fields. On the initiative of the poet Rasul Gamzatov, this memorable date is marked every year in the village of Gunib. The main national holiday of Daghestan is its Constitution Day celebrated all over the republic on July, 26.
Glossary appropriate, adj - correct or right for a particular situation or occasion
fortnight, n - a period of two weeks
contradictory, adj - stating the opposite of some fact or statement
sovereignty, n - the power or authority to rule
reconciliation, n - the process of making two people or groups of people friendly again after they have argued seriously or fought and kept apart from each other, or a situation in which this happens
collapse, n - to be unable to continue or to remain in operation; fail
Orthodox, adj - (of beliefs, ideas, or activities) following generally accepted beliefs or standards
secular, adj - not having any connection with religion
public, adj – here - official
holdover, n – remained features from the previous times
gallantly, adv – (of a man) polite and kind towards women, especially when in public
retain, v - to keep or continue to have something:
sacred, adj - considered to be holy and deserving respect, especially because of a connection with a god
fasting, n - a period of time when you eat no food
lunar, adj – moon related
pilgrimage, n - journey made by a pilgrim to a place which is considered special, and which you visit to show your respect
movable, adj – having no fixed date
solar, adj – sun related
crane, n - a tall bird with long thin legs and a long neck
commemoration, n - something which is done to remember officially and give respect to a great person or event Discussion
Enumerate all the holidays celebrated in Russia.
What month of the year is the most inappropriate for work? Why? Make use of your own experience.
What holiday do we celebrate on the 9-th of May?
Say a couple of words about the Russian Federation Day.
What holidays do we observe in winter? Are there any religious holidays in winter?
Why is the Orthodox Christmas celebrated on the 7-th of January?
What can you tell about the holiday which falls on the 23-th of February? Does it have anything to do with the formation of The Soviet Army?
Who and began the International Women’s Day? Give the background of this holiday.
What holidays in Russia retain their original meaning and are equally loved by everyone in the country? Why?
Give the account for the most important holidays in Daghestan.
Compare the nature of the public holidays in Russia with those observed in GB. Find similar and different features.
Where do you think holidays are more politically coloured?
Distinguish the features most characteristic of the Russian and English holidays.
Comment (agree or disagree, say why) upon the following quotations by famous people:
A good holiday is one spent among people whose notions of time are vaguer than yours.
* John Boynton Priestley (an English author and dramatist)
"I once wanted to become an atheist, but I gave up - they have no holidays."
*Henny Youngman (a British comedian and violinist famous for "one-liners," short, simple jokes usually delivered rapid-fire)
The best of all gifts around any Christmas tree: the presence of a happy family all wrapped up in each other.
*Burton Hillis (an American writer)
Fill in the following chart
way of celebrating (if any)
April Fool’s day
suggest other holidays and complete the chart
Unit 8 Movie/ My Favorite Movie Star Sharing Ideas
How often do you go to the cinema?
Do you watch American movies in English (with subtitles), or do you prefer to see movies dubbed into your own language? Explain why.
What is your all-time favorite movie?
Have you ever seen the same movie more than once? If yes, name it (or them).
What do you think of people who talk during movies at a movie theater?
What movie star would you most like to meet? What would you do if you met one?
If a book is made into a movie, do you prefer to read the book first or see the movie first?
What was the last movie you saw? What did you think about it?
Cinema, cinema, cinema… In 1995 we celebrated the hundredth anniversary of cinematography. A century ago the Lumiere brothers made their first three-minute films which were demonstrated to the public on December 28, 1895 in Paris.
Since then a new era has begun- the era of cinematography. It rapidly spread all over the world and very soon turned into one of the most popular arts and entertainments. The twentieth century may rightfully be called the century of cinematography. Nowadays the cinema is considered one of the main contemporary arts. It combines such arts as painting, literature, theatre, architecture, and music. That’s why a lot of people of different professions are involved in film production: scriptwriters, directors, producers, cameramen, costume designers, composers, actors, actresses and many others.
The first films were silent and black-and-white ones. The first films in the West were melodramas and comedies. In Russia they were mostly historical ones and screen-versions of the best novels.
Since the twentieth, the Hollywood, the famous U.S. film studio, has become the center of the world movie industry.
In early thirties the first sound films were released. The cinema was of great importance during the two world wars. The best cameramen went to the front to make documentary films about heroism of the soldiers. Feature films of that time helped people survive the hardships of war.
Films are demonstrated in cinemas (moving picture-theatres (movies) – U.S.). There are a lot of them in every town and city. In the programme there used to be a feature - film preceded by a newsreel, a documentary, a popular science film or even by an animated cartoon. In our country there are intervals between the shows, and the day show is called a matinee. In most cinemas in Western countries there are no intervals between the programmes, and people can stay in the cinema as long as they like.
Nowadays most people prefer watching video films and TV, but films will never cease being one of the best entertainments all over the world. Besides, cinema plays a great educational role in the life of society. It helps to bring up the younger generation, to widen the young people’s range of knowledge.
Glossary entertainment, n - shows, films, television, or other performances or activities that entertain people, or a performance of this type
contemporary, adj - existing or happening now
combine, v - to (cause to) exist together, or join together to make a single thing or group
scriptwriter, n - a person who writes the words for films or radio or television broadcasts
director, n - a person who is in charge of a film and tells the actors how to play their parts
producer, n - a person who makes the practical and financial arrangements needed to make a film, play, television or radio programme
cameraman, n - a person who operates a camera when films or television programmes are being made
black-and-white, adj – colorless
screen-version, n – movie version of some literature piece
movie, n - MAINLY US FOR a cinema film
feature film - a film that is usually 90 or more minutes long
hardship, n - (something which causes) difficult or unpleasant conditions of life, or an example of this
newsreel, n - a short film that consists of news reports, usually one that was made in the past for showing in a cinema
popular science film – a film based on some fantastic story
animated cartoon - a film made using characters and images which are drawn rather than real, and which is usually amusing
matinee, n - a film shown or a play performed during the day, especially in the afternoon
cease, v- to stop something Discussion
Who and when started cinematograph?
What arts does cinema combine and people of what profession are involved into film production?
What were the first motion pictures in the West and in Russia about?
What is the role of cinema in our life?
Why was cinema so important during the war?
What is a matinee?
Can cinema be of any but entertaining use to people, especially young ones? How?
What famous Hollywood film studios do you know?
Why do you go to the cinema?
Give the synopsis of one of your favourite films, explain why you like it.
Who is your favourite actor (actress), why do you think he/she is special?
Read the following movie trailers and try to figure out which genre each film belongs to. Provide a movie trailer of a film you like best of all, make an appropriate presentation
Notting Hill William Thacker (Hugh Grant) is a shy London bookseller who has never had much luck with women. His business is stagnant, he has the roommate from hell, and since his divorce, his love life is completely non-existent. When Hollywood star Anna Scott (Julia Roberts), whose picture has been plastered on the cover of every magazine, and every time she makes a move, the entire world knows about it, wanders into his shop, he is transfixed, but doesn't expect to see her again. But coincidence brings them together again, and soon the unlikely couple are falling in love, and must deal with the problems of a relationship between a star and an ordinary guy.
Based on the new Hannibal Lecter prequel novel from author Thomas Harris, which will center on how Hannibal watched his young sister get killed and eaten by hungry soldiers in war-ravaged Lithuania during WWII. The movie will take place at three pivotal moments of Hannibal's life. It is the fourth book dealing with the Doctor, who first appeared in "Red Dragon," and subsequently in "The Silence of the Lambs" and "Hannibal". Gong Li will play Lady Murasaki, Lecter's teacher after he escapes from an orphanage and runs away to Paris.
In the sprawling, privileged neighborhoods around L.A., bored teenagers with too much time and too much money string one hazy day into another, looking for the next thrill--doing suburban imitations of the thug life they idolize from rap music, video games and movies. When you're living without any consequences, anything can happen. And in the hot California summer six years ago, something did. Inspired by true events, Alpha Dog follows three fateful days when the lives of a group of Southern California teens suddenly dead-ended. The film features a powerful ensemble cast including Ben Foster, Shawn Hatosy, Emile Hirsch, Christopher Marquette, Sharon Stone, Justin Timberlake, Anton Yelchin and Bruce Willis and is written and directed by Nick Cassavetes.
"Rocky Balboa" is the next story in the saga of Philadelphia boxer Rocky Balboa, one of Hollywood's most beloved characters. In the film, Rocky has long since retired but is drawn back to the boxing ring one last time. On the way he is challenged by a powerful new champion, by personal tragedy and ultimately by himself.
Based on the Christopher Paolini-penned bestselling fantasy novel about a youth whose discovery of a dragon egg leads him to become a knight and battle an evil king. The medieval-set tale revolves around a farm boy who learns he is the last of a breed of benevolent Dragon Riders, whose magical powers derived from their bond with the beasts.
Rated:R for sequences of graphic violence and distrubing images
From Academy Award® winning filmmaker Mel Gibson ("The Passion of The Christ," "Braveheart"), comes "Apocalypto": a heart stopping mythic action-adventure set against the turbulent end times of the once great Mayan civilization. When his idyllic existence is brutally disrupted by a violent invading force, a man is taken on a perilous journey to a world ruled by fear and oppression where a harrowing end awaits him. Through a twist of fate and spurred by the power of his love for his woman and his family he will make a desperate break to return home and to ultimately save his way of life.
"Turistas" follows six college students who, while backpacking across Brazil, get stranded in the jungles and imprisoned by a military group with a bloody agenda. After a terrifying bus accident maroons a diverse group of young adventure travelers in a remote Brazilian beach town, they slowly discover that the white sand beaches and lush jungles are concealing a darker, unsettling secret.
The drama stars Denzel Washington as an FBI agent who, upon discovering that a woman he loves was among the victims of a ferry terrorist attack, travels back in time.
Daniel Craig takes over the role of the legendary British secret agent, James Bond, in the highly anticipated 007 adventure thriller. "Casino Royale" will be the 21st James Bond film.
Comment (agree or disagree, say why) upon the following quotations by famous people:
Film as dream, film as music. No art passes our conscience in the way film does, and goes directly to our feelings, deep down into the dark rooms of our souls.
* Ingmar Bergman (Swedish film writer-director)
Pictures are for entertainment, messages should be delivered by Western Union.
* Samuel Goldwyn (U.S. film producer)
Movies are one of the bad habits that corrupted our century. Of their many sins, I offer as the worst their effect on the intellectual side of the nation. It is chiefly from that viewpoint I write of them--as an eruption of trash that has lamed the American mind and retarded Americans from becoming a cultured people.
* Ben Hecht (U.S. journalist, novelist, playwright, and film writer)
Right now I think censorship is necessary; the things they're doing and saying in films right now just shouldn't be allowed. There's no dignity anymore and I think that's very important.
* Mae West (U.S. film actress)
Unit 9 APPEARANCE/describing people
Give your definition for the word “appearance”. Do you think everybody has it?
Do you think it is important to be able to describe one’s appearance with much detail? Think of situations when we might need this skill.
What do you like/dislike best/ most of all in your appearance?