Influence of economic activity and living standard on birth rate in modern Russia
In the article the author shows research results of the influence of economic activitiy of the population, purchasing power of money income and population housing conditions on the birth rate. Given results allow to develop reasonable social policy leading to birth rate rise in average and long-term perspective.
Key words: aggregate birth rate, economic activity of population, overall unemployment, consumer budgets of population, population rate with substandard income, regional demographic programmes.
Birth rate and population growth
In the article the author analyses connection between birth rate (aggregate birth rate) and human development index altogether and also its components – GDP index, education index and lifespan index. The author analyses reproductive attitude of different groups of population according to the data given by social and demographic survey “Family and birth rate” which was held under the guidance of the Russian Federation Federal State Statisctics Service in 2009. Based on the complex of quality and quantity and factor analysis of reproductive reasons of families they describe four types of parenthood: solidary, complementary, delegating and instrumental – with ambivalent diffusive attitude to children.
Influence of value judgement of living standard on reproductive behavior
In his article the author gives value judgement of influence of population living stan-dard on reproductive behavior and reproductive attitudes of men, women and young families based on the results of several researches held in the regions of the Russian Federation.
Key words: living standard, quality of life, reproductive behavior.
Gender changeover and life quality
In the article the author discovers the conception of gender changeover content and explains the necessity of its theses while designing the programmes of improvement of life quality. Gender equality is regarded as indicator of society modernization and social and economic development on the one hand and motivation of such development on the other hand.
In order to check hypothesis about great need of Russian economy for immigrants it is necessary to go beyond demographic forecasting and try to define work-force size in long term and, what is more important – economy need for labour power. Demographic forecasting about population size should be compared with economic prediction of production volume of GDP, labour capacity and only then we will be able to make a conclusion if Russian economy needs extra work force in the future or not. Based on the results made in this article it is supposed that generally extra work force won’t be needed and unemployment will remain at the same level as it is now.
Key words: working-age population forecasting, GDP and labour capacity forecasting, employment forecasting, unemployment forecasting, scarcity of labour, surplus of labour, labour migration, foreign labour.
In the article the author analyses population life quality according to age and income groups; gives characteristics of generations in terms of their economic activity. The author develops models of predominant economic and demographic attitudes of different groups of population according to the level of their material security.
Key words: aggregate birth rate, economic activity of population, consumer budgets of population, population rate with substandard income.
Demographic and economic aspects of support service of families with children
In his article the author gives review of reformation of state support service of families with children which has operated in Russia since the Soviet times till nowadays. The analysis of effectiveness of measures of state demographic policy directed to stimulation of birth rate showed that inspite of substantial growth of allowances their real size in 2011 was lower than in 1996. The author offers and explains measures of state demographic policy directed to stimulation of birth rate which don’t require major bugdet costs. According to the author’s opinion, stimulation of birth rate will be possible due to the arrangement of such conditions in which young families will have an opportunity to improve their material situation by means of their own employment earnings. For this purpose we need to extirpate the shortage of places in pre-school establishments and to develop the system of extended tax deductions for children.
Key words: demographic policy, birth rate, measures of state support service, allowances, federal subsidies for multiple-child families, tax deductions.